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Phys3 Body water

QuestionAnswer
Total body water Intracellular water (ICF) + Extracellular water (ECF). **Usually around 42L, 60% of body weight.
Extracellular water/Fluid (ECF) Interstitial fluid & lymph water + Plasma water. **14 L, 20% of body weight.
Interstitial and lymph water Combines with plasma water to make up ECF. **10.5L, 15% of body weight.
Plasma Water combines with intersitial fluid to form ECF. **3.5L, 5% of body weight.
What is the osmolality of the BL plasma water, interstitial fluid, and ICF respectively? 290mM!! for ALL 3.
Where is Transcellular fluid found. It is included in ECF, it is the fluid surrounded by epithelial cells. Found: 1.synovium w/in joints. 2.CSF. **1L, can exchange with interstitial fluid.
What all does Blood Volume include? 1.Plasma water (3L). 2.Formed elements (2.5L). **5.5L of BL within the INTRAVASCULAR system
What is known as the transit region between BL and the cells? Interstitial fluid (10.5L)
Important Fluid barriers 1.Cell membrane (seperates intracellular from interstitium). 2.Capillary walls (seperates intravascular compartment from interstitium). **there is an extra epithelial layer in addition to endothelium seperating transcellular compartment.
Major cation of ICF K+
Major cation & anions of ECF 1.Na+ 2.Cl- & HCO3-
Is interstial fluid or transcellular fluid considered ultrafiltrate of plasma? INTERSTITIAL!! Same as plasma MINUS the proteins and cells.
Steps of Indicator dilution method 1.indicator that is confined to compartment of interest is injected. 2.Equilibration occurs throughout compartment. 3.plasma sample collected and concentration of indicator measured. 4.Vd is then deteremined.
Equations for concentration and volume based on mass? C=M/V. V=M/c
equation for Volume of distribution (Vd) Vd=(Mass of indicator injected - Mass of indicator lost)/Concentration in plasma. **Mass of indicator lost= Urine Volume x Concentration of indicator in urine.
Indicators for total body water 1.Antipyrine. 2.deuterium (D2O). 3.HTO. **will produce a fluid volume or Vd of ~42L
Indicators for Plasma water 1.Evan's Blue. 2.I-Albumin. **will produce a fluid volume or Vd of ~3L
Indicators for ECF 1.Impermeate ions (Na, Cl, sulfate, SO4, thiocyanate & thiosulfate). 2.Inert sugars (Inulin, mannitol, sucrose). **Inert sugars tend to underestimate total body water. **will produce a fluid volume or Vd of ~14L
What does Osmolality refer to? the # of osmotically active particles in a solution.
Do most electrolytes move freely across the cell membrane? NO. **K+ is major intracellular, Na+ is major extracellular
Hypertonic osmolality has a higher osmolality which will encourage water to move into it. **causing cell swelling.
Hypotonic osmolality Has a lower osmolality which will encourage water to move out of it. **causing cell shrinkage
What 2 things determine a compartment's volume and osmolality? 1.Compartmental solutes. 2.free movement of water.
Volume expansion Vs. Volume contraction Expansion: Increased ECF volume. Contraction: Decreased volume ECF.
Isosmotic volume contraction or expansion The volume changes without a change in osmolality.
Hyperosmotic volume contraction or expansion Volume changes due to an increase in osmolality.
Hyposmotic volume contraction or expansion Volume changes due to a decrease in osmolality.
Expansion and contraction are used to describe what compartment? ECF
Addition of isotonic saline solution (isotonic NaCl) to ECF 1.ICF osmolality:Same (290). 2.ECF osmolality:Same (290). 3.ICF volume:same. 4.ECF volume: Isosmotic volume expansion
Removal of isosmotic fluid from ECF 1.ICF osmolality:same (290). 2.ECF osmolality:same (290). 3.ICF volume:same. 4.ECF volume: Isosmotic volume contraction. **Diarrhea**
Addition of pure water(or any hypotonic solution) to ECF 1.ICF osmolality: <290. 2.ECF osmolality: <290. 3.ICF volume: Increases more than ECF. 4.ECF volume: Hyposmotic volume expansion. **seen in SIADH**
Addition of NaCl (or any hypertonic solution) to ECF 1.ICF osmolality:>290. 2.ECF osmolality:>290. 3.ICF volume: decreases. 4.ECF volume: Hyperosmotic volume expansion.
Addition/Removal of Na+ will mainly affect the volume of what compartment? ECF
Addition/Removal of water will mainly affect the osmolality of what compartment? Both.
What will happen in water deprivation, sweating, and fever? Hyperosmotic volume contraction. **Will lose more WATER than Na+. Osmolality of both are >290mM, Volume of ECF and ICF decrease.
What will happen in Adrenal insufficiency? Hyposmotic volume contraction. Osmolality of both are <290mM, Volume of ECF decreases while ICF increases. **Will lose more Na+ than water.
Adrenal Insufficiency 1.Dec Aldosterone production/release. 2.Leads to Dec Na+ reabsorption. 3.causes hyposmotic volume contraction. **causes a loss of water and Na+, but MORE Na+ than water.
Type 1 Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) 1.Secreting too much ADH. 2.leads to water reabsorption. 3.Hyposmotic volume expansion. **same as adding pure water to ECF. **Type 3 SIADH is euvolumic
What two things cause Euvolemic changes? 1.Diabetes insipidus. 2.SIADH.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Isosmotic expansion 1.Hct: Dec. 2.serum [Na+]: same.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Isosmotic contraction 1.Hct:Inc. 2.serum [Na+]:same.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Hyperosmotic expansion 1.Hct:Dec. 2.serum [Na+]: Inc.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Hyperosmotic contraction 1.Hct: same. 2.serum [Na+]: Inc.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Hyposmotic expansion 1.Hct: same. 2.serum [Na+]: Dec.
Effects on Hct and serum [Na+]: Hyposmotic contraction 1.Hct: Inc. 2.serum [Na+]: Dec.
Improtance and maintenance of ECF volume? *Critical for maintaining BP and perfusion. *maintained by monitoring and adjusting total body NaCl content
How is ECF osmolality maintained? by monitoring and adjusting total-body water content.
What is the signal for Na+ homeostasis? VOLUME!!
Response to Dec BV/ECF 1.Inc RAAS. 2.INC SNS outflow. 3.INC AVP/ADH. 4.DEC ANP. **Dec Na+ EXCRETION and Inc water Reabsorption
How would an INC in osmolality affect the hypothalamus? Osmoreceptors would trigger release of AVP/ADH to cause reabsorption of water.
Response to Inc BV/ECF 1.Inc Na+ excretion. 2.Dec water reabsorption.
Created by: WeeG