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Digestion Breaking down larger nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.
chemical digestion uses enzymes to break chemical bonds
mechanical digestion happens in the mouth, involves the teeth, tongue, and the help of saliva to break down food.
enzyme a protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction
substrate target of enzyme reaction (what it starts out as before reaction takes place)
product end result of an enzymatic reaction
sphincter ring of muscle around a passageway that can be opened or closed. They are used to control the movement of substances through the digestive system.
mucosa The mucus membrane formed with a surface layer or epithelium and underlying connective tissue with a small amount of smooth muscle, functions in absorption
submucosa contains a lot of blood vessels; picks up and carries away absorbed nutrients. and it provides materials necessary to make secretions
muscularis layer mostly made of smooth muscle, it has 2 jobs, peristalsis and mixing
peristalsis wavelike motion that moves food through the digestive system.
innervation mainly associated with the smooth muscle layer, maintain muscle tone and regulate strength, rate and velocity of muscular contractions. parasympathetic impulses increase contractions sympathetic decreases.
serosa outer layer that secretes serous fluid to prevent friction
the mouth plays an important role in digestion the teeth mince the food, and the tongue pushes it down the throat. salivary glands add saliva
parotid salivary gland largest located at the roof of the mouth
submandibular and sublingual salivary glands are located under the tongue
salivary gland function it contains, water needed to help dissolve food, mucus to lubricate, and amylase to begin digestion of starch.
deglutition (swallowing) the tongue pushes food into the pharynx. when tongue pushes back, epiglotis cover the trachia
goblet cells in stomach secret mucus. they are found towards the top of the pit. the mucus provides a protective coating
parietal cells in the stomach secrete HCL which helps to dissolve nutrients and activate pepsinogen. they also secret intrinsic factor which is a carrier protein that allows for B12 absorption
cheif cells secrete pepsinogen; the non-active form of pepsin
gastric absorbtion the stomach can absorb water, vitamins, drugs, and other simple nutrients that dont need further digestion
gastric emptying a gradual process controlled by the pyloric sphincter a few tbsp at a time.
Created by: 688472874



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