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Security+ Chap 4

Chapter 4 Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigating Attacks

QuestionAnswer
The expected monetary loss that can be expected for an asset due to a risk over a one-year period. Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE)
The probability that a risk will occur in a particular year. Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO)
The process of defining a collection of hardware and software components along with their interfaces in order to create the framework for software development. Architectural design
The code that can be executed by unauthorized users in a software program. Attack surface
A comparison of the present state of a system compared to its baseline. Baseline reporting
A test in which the tester has no prior knowledge of the network infrastructure that is being tested. Black box
Presenting the code to multiple reviewers in order to reach agreement about its security. Code review
An analysis of the design of a software program by key personnel from different levels of the project. Design review
The proportion of an asset's value that is likely to be destroyed by a particular risk (expressed as a percentage). Exposure Factor (EF)
A control that errs on the side of permissiveness in the event of a failure. Fail-open
A control that errs on the side of security in the event of a failure. Fail-safe (fail-secure)
A test where some limited information has been provided to the tester. Gray box
The process of eliminating as many security risks as possible and making the system more secure. Hardening
A network set up with intentional vulnerabilities. Honeynet
A computer typically located in an area with limited security and loaded with software and data files that appear to be authentic, yet they are actually imitations of real data files, to trick attackers into revealing their attack techniques. Honeypot
A test by an outsider to actually exploit any weaknesses in systems that are vulnerable. Penetration testing
Software to search a system for any port vulnerabilities. Port scanner
Hardware or software that captures packets to decode and analyze the contents. Protocol analyzer (sniffer)
The expected monetary loss every time a risk occurs. Single Loss Expectancy (SLE)
A systematic and methodical evaluation of the exposure of assets to attackers, forces of nature, or any other entity that is a potential harm. Vulnerability assessment
An automated software search through a system for any known security weaknesses that then creates a report of those potential exposures. Vulnerability scan
Generic term for a range of products that look for vulnerabilities in networks or systems. Vulnerability scanner
A test where the tester has an in-depth knowledge of the network and systems being tested, including network diagrams, IP addresses, and even the source code of custom applications. White box
Sending a packet with every option set on for whatever protocol is in use to observe how a host responds. Xmas Tree port scan
Created by: 1592245141