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Phys. Unit 3

QuestionAnswer
Phasic vs. Tonic Receptors phasic- short term; smell tonic- continued, long term; pain
Pools vs. Stores pools- readily available stores- not readily available
Pathway of reflex arc stimulus, receptors, afferent route, integrating center (brain), efferent route, effectors, response
Local vs. Neural control local- does not travel to brain; uses hormones neural- travels to brain, uses nerves, no hormones, stimulates muscles
Primary messengers description 1. Extracellular 2. non-polar molecules 3. paracrines, autocrines, hormones, neurotransmitters, neurohormones
Secondary messenger description 1. Intracellular (inside cell) 2. cAMP, cGMP, Calcium ions, IP3, DAG
Definition of signal transduction the process from primary to secondary chemical messengers to response
Cytosol receptors description inside cell; does not use secondary messengers
Membrane receptors description bound to cell; usually uses a secondary chemical messenger; uses 4 general pathways: 1) receptor-enzyme complex system 2) G-protein systems 3)Calcium ion operated channels systems 4) arachidonic systems
Nervous System description very quick, targeted, short-duration, mainly mediates muscular and secretrory or glandular functions
Endocrine System description very slow, diffuse, long-lasting effect, mainly mediates metabolic (anabolic and catabolic) functions
Catecholamin description 1. precurser- amino acid tyrosine 2. secreted from thyroid, adrenal medulla, hypothalamus 4. example: thyroid hormone
list of thyroid hormones T1 and T2- not common; T3-most reactive; T4- most abundant (common, (9:1 compared to T3)
Pathway that produces epinephrine tyrosine-dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine
Proteins and Peptide description 1. Dominant category(need 2ndary) 2. secreted from pancreas, GI tract, pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid 3. secreted as pro-hormones (inactive) 4. Peptides (<50 amino acids): ADH, oxytocin, glucagon, ACTH 5) Proteins (>50 AAs): insulin, GH
Steroids description 1. secreted- gonads, corpus luteum, placenta 2. precursor- cholesterol 3. examples- testosterone, estrogen 4. dont need 2nd-ary messengers
Estrogen production pathway cholesterol-androstenedione-testosterone-estradiol(estrogen)
Classes of hormones Catecholamines, peptides and proteins(dominant), and steroids
Thyrozine description 1. Catecholamine 2. Behaves like a steroid 3. can be stored(unlike steroid)
Paracrine/autocrine definition 1. cell to cell 2. carries messenges short distances
Hormones definition 1. secreted into blood 2. travels to targets by circulatory system
Neurohormones definition 1. released by nervous system cell and transported through blood
Neurotransmitters definition 1. released by nervous system cells bind to receptor 2. example: acetylcholine, epinephrine
Permissiveness definition an individual hormone produces a response that is greater in the presence of another "passive" hormone
Tropic definition a hormone whose main function is to stimulate another gland to produce another hormone
Up regulation definition increase number/sensitivity of receptors
Down regulation definition decrease in number/sensitivity of receptors
Posterior pituitary secretions oxytocin, ADS (vasopressin); both secreted but not made in the PPG
What class are hypothalamic hormones? All hormones are peptides except PIH(dopamine)
Anterior-pituitray secretory cells Lactotropes, somatotropes, thytropes, gonadotropes, corticotropes
Lactotropes staining and hormone acidophils, prolactin
Somatotropes staining and hormone acidophils, GH
Thytropes staining and hormone basophils and TSH
Gonadotropes staining and hormones basophils; FSH and LH
Corticotropes staining and hormones chromophobes; ACTH
2 types of hormone loops 1. short- from APG and hypothalamus 2. long- from peripheral to APG or peripheral to hypothalamus
receptor-enzyme complex system pathway guanylyl cyclase-cGMP-cGMP-dependent kinase-response
G-protein dependent system (A) pathway G-protein-andenylyl cyclase-cAMP-cAMP dependent kinase-reponse
G-protein dependent system (B) pathway Phopholipase C - PIP2- IP3 and DAG- response
Calcium ion system pathway Ca- Ca+2 and Calmodulin(activates)- calmodulin-dependent kinases- response
Arachidonic system pathway phospholipase A2- membrane phospholipid- arachidonic acid (metabolized)- protaglandins, thromboxane A2, and leukotrienes- reponse
Which hormone is not tropic? prolactin from APG
Created by: kcapland