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SPED 326 Ch 6

Definition of Terms in chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
Speech Disorder difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality (ex. a hoarse voice) or fluency of speech, often referred to as stuttering
Language disorder difficulty receiving understanding, or formulating ideas and information
receptive language disorder characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information
expressive language disorder characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information
cleft palate or lip a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip.
dialect a language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural'ethnic factors
speech the oral expression of language
language a structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating. Five components: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
Phonology the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words. Encompasses the rules and sequencing of individual speech sounds (called phonemes) and how they are produced, depending on their placement in a syllable or word
morphology the system that governs the structure of words.
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of speech
syntax provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
semantics refers to the meaning of what is expressed
pragmatics refers to the use of communication in contexts
Social interaction theories emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
Articulation a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
substitutions when a child substitutes a letter for another letter or sound. (Ex. substituting "th" for "d"
omissions occur when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word (ex. boo for blue)
additions when a student places a vowel between to consonants (ex. tree to tahree)
distortions modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word (ex. lisp)
apraxia a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
pitch determined by the rate of vibration in the vocal folds
duration the length of time any speech sound requires
intensity loudness or softness - based on the perception of the listener and determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds.
resonance the perceived quality of someone's voice - determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose
hypernasility type of resonance trait in which air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than m, n, and ng
hyponasility air is unable to pass through the nose and comes through the mouth - often results in a nasally sounding voice
fluency rate and rhythm of speaking
specific language impairment nan impairment not related to any physical or intellectual disability
organic disorders disorders caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
functional disorders disorders with no identifiable organic or neurological cause
congenital disorder a disorder that occurs at or before birth
acquired disorder a disorder that occurs well after birth
oral motor exam the examination of the appearance, strength, and range or motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw
bilingual uses two languages equally well
bidialectal uses two variations of a language - difficult to determine their primary language
System for Augmenting Language (SAL) focuses on augmented input of language - augment speech by activating the student's communication device in naturally occurring communication interactions at home and school and community
Created by: gracie357