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Serif Stroke Bottom stroke
Bracketing The transition between the stem and the serif strokes
Bracketed Serif A serif in which the transition from the stem stroke to the serif stroke is one continuous curve; a serif may have differing degrees of bracketing
Cupped Serif The part of a serif that is arched in the center and touches the base in line two points. This is graceful, subtle detail of Old Style Fonts
Serif A stroke crossing the main terminals of a character and extending beyond main stroke; believed to be residuals of chisel-cut letters in ancient Rome
Pointed Serif A serif in which terminates in a sharp point
Sans Serif (Without)
Horizontal Terminal The end of a stroke of a letter that is parallel to the baseline; usually seen on sans serif fonts
Vertical Terminal The end of a letter stroke that is 90 degrees to the baseline
Terminal The end of a stem stroke of a character; different types; sheared, straight, acute, horizontal, ball, convex, concave, rounded, flared, hooked, tapered and pointed
X-Height, Waist line or Mean line This line defines the height of the body of the lowercase letters. The lowercase x is used to determine this line because it meets the waistline at two flat areas
Baseline This is the line on which the bases of all the letters align
Body Height The distance from the base line to the x-height line
Vertical Stress The direction of the thickened area in a curved stroke of a Roman face initially caused by a flat pen held at a constant angle when making a curved stroke. The thickest point is the "maximum stress"
Biased Stress The direction of the thick strokes and curves in a typeface is called either biased, oblique or slanted. The biased stress of italic faces is usually at a greater angle than Roman faces
Open Counter A partially enclosed space within a character that is open on one end; for example, the white space in a "c,h,m,n,u,v,w or y"
Crotch The interior space formed by the joint of two strokes of a character, as in a "K,L,M,N,V,W,X,Y or Z" an acute crotch is less than 90 degrees, obtuse is more than 90 degrees
Closed Counter Space The enclosed area formed within a bowl of a letter, for example in an "a,b,d,g,o,p, or q"
Closed Bowl The curved stroke that makes a fully enclosed space with a character, the curved stroke meets the stem; for example in an "a,b,B,d,D,g,p,P,R, or q"
Open Bowl The curved stroke that makes a partially enclosed space within a character, the curve does not meet with the stem completely
Apex The upper point of letters with an ascending pointed form- this point usually extends past the top line, examples of different types; rounded, pointed, hallowed, flat, extended
Example of hallowed apex... Adobe Garmond Pro
Vertex The downward pointing, free-ending juncture of two angled stems; the point touches just below the baseline. Examples of different types: rounded, pointed, hallow, flat, extended, found on the letters "w" and "v"
Arm The horizontal or diagonal upward-sloping stroke that attaches to the stem and is free on one end
Leg The downward angled stroke that is attached to the stem on one end and is free on the other terminal end
Ears The small terminal stroke (something rounded or tear-dropped) projecting from the top of lowercase Roman "g,r,f, and a"
Spur The nodule descending from the vertical stroke of an uppercase "G"; it connects the straight to the curved stroke but is separated from both
Cross Stroke A horizontal stroke that connects two other strokes of the letter; a cross bar is intersected on both ends
Cross Bar A horizontal stroke that connects two other strokes of the letter; intersected on both sides
Loops The lower portion of the Roman lowercase"g" distinguished from the bowl
Tail Extended stroke from the letter "Q"
Link The stroke that connects the loop of the lowercase "g" to the bowl
Eye The enclosed counter from the lowercase "e", it can be fully or partially enclosed counter
Spine The graceful, central curving stroke of the letter "s", which is bolder in fronts with stroke differentiation of stem and hairline strokes
Shoulder A curved stroke that is continuous with a straight stem, not a bowl; examples: "C,or G"bottom of "j,g,t,f, and u" as well as the top of the "a"
Swash A decorative flourish used to accent a character, usually at the beginning or end of a word. Can be curled, twisted, or graceful extensions added to letters to call attention to it
Flags The small swash-like strokes used on calligraphic fonts to add flourish to the vertical strokes
Beaks A half serif at the end of the horizontal arms of the "E,F,L,T, or Z"
Barbs A half serif at the end of the curved strokes of a "C,G, or S"
Terminal The end of a stroke of a character; different types: sheared, straight, acute, horizontal, ball, convex, concave, flared, hooked, tapered, and pointed
Ascender Line or Cap Line The line that the caps and ascenders touch (Sometimes these two lines are the same; sometimes, as in Old Style fonts, the caps are smaller than the ascenders) lower case
Baseline The line along which the bases of the letters align
Descender Line The line in which the descenders of a font touch
Point Size Is measured from the ascender line to the descender line. It includes the body of the letter as well as the ascenders and descenders
Typeface Is a collection of characters-letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation, etc.
Cookie Typeface
Font Is a physical thing (Computer code, Photographic film, Metal)
Cookie Cutter Font
Change from nomadic to agriculturally based societies 8000BC
Simplified drawings of objects, Pictographs Appropriate for nouns, communicate visually, simple drawing of everyday objects
Pictographs to ideographs Concepts other than nouns, developed by egyptians, interpreted with knowledge
Rebuses Pictographs of short words put together to sound out louder words. Bee+Tray=Betray
Phoenician alphabet Earliest alphabet, needed to simplified writing form, using symbols for each sound developed their alphabet
1600 BC (Phoenician alphabet) New concept in written communication
Greek alphabet Adapted from Phoenician alphabet 1000 BC, became a means of preserving knowledge. Took Phoenician letters to make their own, no vowels, only constants
403 BC (Greek alphabet) Added 5 vowels by Athens
500 BC (Greek alphabet) Left to right writing
Roman alphabet Adopted and modified Greek alphabet
13 letters accepted and unchanged Roman alphabet- A,B,E,H,i,k,m,n,o,T,x,y,z
8 letters revised Roman alphabet- C,D,G,L,P,R,S,V
2 letters added Roman alphabet-F,Q
23 letters are all that were needed for ... Latin
Dropped 3 letters Alpha, Beta, Gamma (ABC)
1000 U and W were added, 500 years later... J was added
Lower case letters Minishcule
Capital letters Magischule
Added in the 15th century with the invention of printing Punctuation
Scale Relationship among elements within a composition or hierarchy
Type crime Minimal differences in type size
Scale contrast difference in sizes (mix styles inspired within the same family)
Trilogy A "super family" with sans, Egyptian and fatface styles inspired by 19th century advertising
Leading The space between rows of type
Set solid Same numbers
Body copy is... Hard to read
Headline copy is... Easy to read
Complex Experimenting with line spacing
Hanging quotes Outside the paragraph
River White space running through text
Repagination Moving letters around
Capitals stack more comfy than... Lowercase
Moveable type Each letter made of lead or wood
On the web, paragraphs are usually... Marked with a skipped line
ITC International Type Company (Corporation)
Width of text is normally... 45 to 75 characters
En dash Used with numbers
Em dash Used when finishing a thought
Tracking Space between all characters
Kerning Creating an even amount of space between characters
Created by: M.koch