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Systemic Anatomy

WOD page 151-159 spinal cord and cervical plexus

Q: radiculitis A: inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
Hydranencephaly The congenital absence of the cerebral hemespheres in which the space in the cranium that they normally occupy is filled with fluid.
Hyperesthesia An abnormal or pathological increase in sensitivity to sensory stimuli, as of the skin to touch or the ear to sound.
Cephalgia Headache
Sciatica Chronic neuralgic pain in the area of the hip or thigh.
Hydrocephalus A usually congenital condition in which an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain.
Tetraplegia Quadriplegia-paralysis of all four limbs.
Myelomalacia Morbid softening of the spinal cord.
Syncope A breif loss of consciousness caused by a transient anemia; a swoon.
Ataxia Loss or lack of muscular coordination
Q: Where does the spinal cord end A foramen magnum to L1
Q What is the tapered end of the spinal cord A Conus Medullaris
Q What is made up of pia mater and attaches to the coccyx A Filum terminale
Q a collection of spinal nerve roots A Cuada equina
Q What is a spinal segment and how many are there on the spinal cord A a section of the cord where a pair of spinal nerves arise, there are 31 pairs.
Q; What makes up the three layers of the meninges 1dura mater(tough mother) 2. arachnoid 3. pia mater (tender mother)
Q: what are Denticulate Ligaments A: parts of the pia mater that go through the arachnoid to attach to dura mater.
Q: What serves to suspend the spinal cord within the dural sac. A: Denticulate ligaments
The Denticulate ligaments extend from the ___________to ____________ A: foramen magnum to t12-L1.
What does white matter consist of A: bundles of myelinated sensory and motor neurons
Q: 4 parts of the white mater to be aware of are A: Anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus, funiculi, and Tracts.
Q: What are the two types of tracts A: Ascending tracts-sensory, Descending tracts-motor
Q: what are tracts named according to A: their origin and termination ie. corticospinal tract
Q: Is composed mostly of neuron cell bodies and interneurons A: Gray matter
Q: the dorsal horn-posterior horn is composed of axons of _____________ sensory neurons. A: Pseudo-unipolar sensory neurons, GSA, GVA
Q: the ventral horn-anterior horn is composed of ______________? A: GSE multipolar neuron cell bodies.
Q: the Lateral horn is composed of ? A: GVE multipolar neuron cell bodies(T1 to L2)
Q: ascending tracts are A: sensory
Q: Descending tracts are A: motor
Q: functions of the spinal cord A: Impulse conduction and reflex integration
Q: how many pair of spinal nerves are there A: 31
Q: spinal roots are formed by A: union of ventral root and dorsal root
Q: Dorsal roots A: GSA, GVA
Q: what are dorsal root ganglion made up of ? A: pseudounipolar neuron cell bodies
Q: What are ventral roots made up of? A: GSE, GVE from multipolar neurons located in the ventral and lateral horn
Q: C1 spinal segment is ni the neural canal of the ? A: Atlas
Q: L2 spinal segment is in neural canal of ? A: T11 vertebra
Q: S4 spinal segment is in neural canal of ? A: L1 vertebra
Q: What is the Bell-Magendie Law A: The dorsal root of a spinal nerve carries sensory information, the ventral root carries motor information.
Q: The spinal nerve forms as the ventral root and dorsal root join at the ______. A: Intervertebral Foramen(IVF)
Q: Cervical spinal nerves are named according to the vertebra they exit above or below? A: Above ie. C3 exits the spinal cord superior to the third cervical vertebra, between C2 and C3.
Q: and All others A: according to the vertebra they exit below. ie. T4 exits between T4 and T5 vertebra.
Q: What is Hiltons Law A: Nerve supplying joint also supplies both the muscles that move the joint and the skin that covers it.
Q: Name branches of a spinal nerve A: Recurent meningeal, Sinuvertebral, Meningeal Ramus, Dorsal ramus, Rami Communicantes, Ventral ramus.
Q: name the branches of the dorsal ramus A: medial branch, and lateral branch
Q. What are the branches of the Rami communicantes? Q: Gray ramus-GVE, White ramus- GVE,GVA
Q: In what region of the spinal cord are the white rami communicantes located? A: the sympathetic division- T1-L2.
Q. what do the ventral rami form? A. Plexi and Intercostal nerves ( after T12 we call it the subcostal nerve)
Q. What innervates the posterior aspect of teh IVD and the posterior longitudinal logament? A. the Recurrent Meningeal nerve
Q. What inervates the anterior epidural veins, the anterior aspect of the dura and the periosteum of posterior aspect of vertebral bodies? A. Recurrent Meningeal nerve
Q. What innervates the skin and muscles of the back out to the level of the lateral column of the erector spinae group, Carries sympathetic fibers to structures of the back, and Zygapophyseal joints? A: Dorsal Ramus
Q: what innervates the periosteum of the posterior vertebral arch, interspinous, supraspinous and intertransverse ligaments and logamentum flavum? A: Dorsal Ramus
Q. Dorsal ramus has how many branches? A: 2
Q: What are the branches of the Dorsal Ramus A: Medial branch and Lateral branch
Q: Which branches of the Dorsal Ramus are Sensory? A: Medial superior to T6 and Lateral T6 and inferior.
Q. Which branches of the dorsal ramus are motor A. Medial inferoir to T6 and Lateral Superior to T6
Q. T or F Rami communicantes are associated with the ANS. A. True
Q. What connects the spinal nerve to the paravertebral ganglia? A. Whit rami communicantes
Q. what connects the paravertebral ganglia to the spinal nerve? A. Gray rami communicantes.
Q. T or F the Gray rami communicantes are Affarent? A. True
Q. where are white Rami found A. in the sympathetic division/ T1-L2.
Q: what supply motor, sensory and sympathetic fibers to the anterior and lateral muscles and skin of the neck and trunk? A: the Ventral Ramus
Q; What innervates all of the muscles and skin of the limbs, including the superficial back muscles? A. the Ventral ramus
Q. what do the ventral rami form ? A. Plexi and T1-T12 intercostal nerves.
Q:What are the four branches of a spinal nerve? A. 1.Rami communicantes 2. Recurent meningial 3. Dorsal Ramus 4. Ventral Ramus
Q. What is another way of saying Spinal nerve root? A. Ventral rami
Q: What are the roots of a plexus? A. Ventral rami of spinal nerves
Q: What do the ventral rami of C5-T1 form? A: the Brachial Plexus
Q. Is it correct to say the Spinal nerve roots of the plexus are the ventral rami of the plexus? A: You Bechyr Bippy
Q: What forms the Cervical Plexus? A. Ventral Rami of spinal nerves C1-C4(5).
Q: What mainly makes up the Cervical Plexus? A. mainly the ventral rami of C2, 3and 4
Q. What do the Sensory branches of the cervical plexus carry? A: afferent GSA and GVA info.
Q: How many nerves come off of the Cervical plexus? A. 6, 4 sensory and 2 motor.
Q. What are the 4 sensory branches of the cervical plexus? A. 1. Lesser Occipital nerve(C2,3), 2. Greater Auricular nerve(C2,3), 3. Transverse Cervical Nerve-C2,3. 4. Supraclavicular nerves(C3,4).
What are the motor branches of the Cervical plexus? A. Ansa cervicalis(C1,2,3) and the Phrenic nerve(C3,4,5).
Q. what does the lesser occipital nerve innervate? A. skin posterior to the auricle and lateral portion of the occipital region.
Q. What does the Greater Auricular nerve inervate? A. the anterior branch-skin over parotid salivary gland, and the posterior branch-skin over the mastoid process and ear lobe.
Q. What does the anterior branch of the greater auricular nerve innervate? A. skin over the parotid salivary gland
Q: what does the posterior branch of the Greater auricular nerve innervate? A: skin over the mastoid process and ear lobe.
Q. What innervates the skin of the anterior neck A. the Transverse Cervical nerve
Q. how many branches are there to the Supraclavicular nerve? A: three
Q. what are the three branches of the supraclavicular nerve A. medial, intermediate and lateral branches.
Q. what innervates the skin from clavicle to the midline ? A. medial branch of the supraclavicular neerv of the cervical plexus
Q. what innervates the skin of the anterior chest wall? A. the intermediate branch of the supraclavicular nerve of the cervical plexus.
Q. what does the lateral branch of the supraclavicular nerve innervate? A: the skin over the shoulder.
Q. what are the two motor branches of the Cervical plexus? A. the Ansa cervicalis(C1,2,3), and the Phrenic nerve(C3,4,5)
Q. what provides motor to the omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid? A. the Ansa Cervicalis(C1,2,3)
Q. what does the Phrenic nerve(C3,4,5) innervate? A. the motor to the diaphragm
Q. What division of which nerves form the cervical plexus? A. 1.Lesser Occipital n.(C2,3) 2. Greater Auricular n.(C2,3), 3. Transverse Cervical n.(C2,3), 4. Supraclavicular n.(C3,4), 5. Ansa Cervicalis n.(C1,2,3), 6. Phrenic n.(C3,4,5)
Created by: timsopp