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Pediatric Exam 1

Chapter 2

How is NATURAL selection related to adaptive behavior? o Natural selection is the evolutionary by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are that survive and reproduce. All organisms must adapt to particular places, climates, food sources, and ways of life.
How is natural selection related to ADAPTIVE behavior? Adaptive behavior promotes an organisms survivial in the natural habitat. Ex. Attachment between a caregiver and a baby ensures the infants closeness to a caregiver for feeding and protection from danger increasing infants chances of survival.
Explain the role of genes in reproduction? Genes are the units of hereditary information are short segments of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins. Each gene has its own location, its own designated place on a particular chromosome
Explain the role of chromosomes in reproduction? The nucleus of each human cell contains chromosomes which are threading structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.
Mitosis All the cells in the body except the sperm and egg have 46 chromosomes arranges in 23 pairs. These cells reproduce by a process mitosis. During mitosis, the cells nucleus including the chromosomes duplicates itself and the cell divides. Two new cells refo
meiosis Meiosis forms eggs and sperm (Gametes). During meiosis a cell of the testes in men or ovaries in women duplicates its chromosomes but then divided twice, forming four cells. Each of which had only one half of the genetic material of the parent cell. By th
Define genotype Genotype is a person genetic heritage, the actual genetic material
Define phenotype an individual’s genotype is expressed in observable and measureable characteristics. Phenotypes include physical characteristics such as height, weight, and hair color and psychological characteristics such as personality and intelligence.
Explain the dominant-recessive genes principle the potential influence of the other genes are recessive A recessive gene exerts its influence only if the two genes of a pair are both recessive.inherit a recessive gene from each your parents,the trait shows If you inherit a recessive gene from only one
Down Syndrome is an extra chromosome causes mild to severe retardation and physical abnormalities. TREATMENT- surgery, early intervention, infant stimulation, and special learning programs. INCIDENCE- 1 in 1,099 births at age 20, 1 in 300 births at age 35, 1 in 30 bir
Klinefelter Syndrome is an extra X chromosome causes physical abnormalities. TREATMENT- Hormone therapy can be affective. INCIDENCE- 1 in 600 male births.
Fragile X syndrome An abonormality in the X chromosome can cause mental retardation, learning disabilities, or short attention span. TREATMENT- Special education, speech and language. INCIDENCE- More common in males than in females
Turner Syndrome is a missing X chromosome in females which can cause mental retardation and sexual underdevelopment. TREATMENT- Hormone therapy in childhood puberty. INCIDENCE- 1 in 2,500 female births.
XXY Syndrome is an Y chromosome which can cause above average height. TREATMENT- No special treatment required. INCIDENCE- 1 in 1000 male births.
Cystic Fibrosis is glandular dysfunction that interferes with mucus production; breathing and digestion are hampered, resulting in shortening life span. TREATMENT- Physical and oxygen therapy; synthetic enzymes and antibiotics. Most individuals live to middle age. INCI
Diabetes Body does not produce enough insulin, which causes abnormal metabolism of sugar. TREATMENT- Early onset can be fatal unless treated with insulin. INCIDENCE- 1, 2000 births.
Hemophilia is delayed blood clotting which causes internal and external bleeding. TREATMENT- Blood transfusion/ injections can reduce or prevent damage due to internal bleeding. INCIDENCE- 1 in 10, 000 males.
Huntington Disease Central nervous system, deteriorates producing problems in muscle coordination and mental deterioration. TREATMENT- Does not usually appear until age 35 or older; death likely 10 to 20 years after symptoms appear. INCIDENCE- 1 in 20,000 births.
Phenylketonuria (pku) Is a metabolic disorder that left untreated causes mental retardation. TREATMET- special diet can result in average intelligence and normal life span. INCIDENCE- 1 in 10000 to 1 in 20,000 births.
Sickle –Cell Anemia is a blood disorder that limits the body’s oxygen supply. It can cause joint swelling, as well as heart and kidney failure. TREATMENT- Penicillin, medication for pain, antibiotics and blood transfusion. INCIDENCE- 1 in 400 African American children lower
Spina bifida is a neural tube disorder that causes brain and spinal abnormalities. TREATMENT- Corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices and physical/medical therapy. INCIDENCE- 2 in 1,000 births.
Tay-Sachs Disease Deceleration of mental and physical development caused by an accumulation of lipids in the nervous system. TREATMENT- Medication and special diet are used, but death is likely by 5 years of age. INCIDENCE- One in 30 American Jews is a carrier.
Ultrasound Sonography is a prenatal medical procedure in which high-frequency sounds waves are directed into the pregnant womans abdomen. The technique can detect many structural abnormalities in the fetus, which include microencephaly, a form of mental retardation involving a
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is a prenatal medical procedure in which a small sample of the placenta ( the vascular organ that links the fetus to the mothers uterus) is removed. When CVS is used there is a small risk of limb deformity.
Fetal MRI is used to diagnosis fetal malformations. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging and uses a powerful magnet and radio images to generate detailed images to generate detailed images of the body’s organs and structures.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
Maternal Blood Screening identifies pregnancies that have an elevated risk for birth defects such as spina bifida (a defect in the spinal cord) and down syndrome.
What information is gained from the twin studies? behavior geneticist capitalize on the basic knowledge that identical twins are more similar genetically than fraternal twins The influence of the environment on the observed similarities between identical and fraternal twins might be very significant.
Created by: Sir_Blackwell03
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