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Pediatric Exam 1

Chapter 1

QuestionAnswerQuestionAnswer QuestionAnswer
Cognitive processes Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence and language (putting together a 2 word sentence, memorizing a poem) Erickson Psychosocial Theory. Includes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved Descriptive Design Observe and record behavior (researcher might observe the extent to which ppl are aggressive towards each other)
Scientific method An approach that can be used to obtain accurate information. It includes these steps (1. Conceptualize the problem, 2. Collect data, 3. Draw conclusions and 4. Revise research conclusions and theory.) Lorenz Ethological Theory. Stresses that behavior strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods Describe some areas of bias in developmental research Gender Bias, Cultural and Ethnic Bias
Freud Psychoanalytic Theory. Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory. Maintains that development reflects the influence of five environmental systems; microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem Lifelong Early adulthood is not the endpoint of development; rather no age period dominates development.
Longitudinal approach A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more Cohort Effects Approach Are due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age. Multidimensional Consist of biological, cognitive and socioemotional dimensions ex. (Memory, Abstract thinking, Speed of processing information and Social Intelligence) few components of cognitive.
Identify the contemporary definition of development? The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. Identify characteristics of life-span development/perspective? (Lifelong, Multidimensional, Multidirectional, Plastic, Multidisciplinary and Contextual) Plastic Capacity for change. Ex (can you still improve your intellectual skills when you are in your 70s or 80s or is a 10yr old destined to be shy forever?)
Multidisciplinary How does your heredity and health limits your intelligence? How do family and schools influence intellectual development? These are research questions that cut across disciplines Contextual Like individuals change. Context exerts 3 types of influences (Normative age-graded influences, Normative history-graded influences and Nonnormative or highly individualized life events.) Identify affects of gender, context, culture, ethnicity, social policy and generational inequity? The affects are health and well-being, parenting, education, sociocultural contexts and diversity, and social policy are all areas of contemporary concern that are closely tied to life-span development
Gender Few aspects of our development are more central to our identity and social relationships than gender. Context Individuals are changing beings in a changing world such as families, schools, peer groups & churches. Culture Behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
Ethnicity on cultural heritage3, nationality, race, religion and language Social Policy The laws, regulations and government programs designed to promote the welfare of its citizens. Generational inequity The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members b/c older adults pile up advantages by receiving inequitably large allocations of resources.
Biological processes Changes in an individual’s physical nature (brain, height and weight gains) Piaget Cognitive Theory. States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development Correlational Design to describe the strength of the relationship between 2 or more events or characteristics (To study if children of permissive parents have less self-control than other children)
Socioemotional processes Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions and personality (infants smile response to a parents touch) Vygotsky Sociocultural Cognitive Theory. That emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Experimental Design A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant
Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance Bandura Social Cognitive Theory. Emphasizes behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development Cross-sectional approach A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
Nurture refers to an organism’s environmental experiences Skinner Behavioral Cognitive Theory Multidirectional Throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink. Ex (When 1 language such as English is acquired early in development the capacity for acquiring 2nd & 3rd languages such as Spanish &Chinese decreases later
Created by: Sir_Blackwell03