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Comm Graphics 1

History of Communication Graphics Test 1

QuestionAnswer
foreshortened The result of a drawing technique that allows for the accurate representation of elements perpendicular to the picture plane, such as a finger pointing at the viewer
Rubrication the process of highlighting words through the utilization of colored inks.
Italics type that slants elegantly upward and to the right
Incunabula a book printed before 1501
Gothic An alternative name for blackletter type that imitates medieval script; alternatively, in the U.S. it can refer to Sans Serif type.
Garamond Fifteen-century Old Style type designed in France by Claude Garamond
Historicist A work that references styles from the past
Hoardings Akin to a billboard, a hoarding is an exterior space (such as a wall) intended for the presentation of posters
Fraktur Blackletter type characterized by "fracture" forms that originated in Germany in the early sixteenth century; also used as a general synonym for blackletter type
Didot Eighteenth-century Modern type designed in France by Firmin Didot
Akzidenz Grotesk One of the first high-quality sans serif typefaces, it was released by German foundry Berthold in 1896
Art Nouveau Literally "new art," a late nineteenth-century decorative arts movement in Europe & U.S. that favored a unified design style based on organic forms, and featured a significant Asian, particularly Japanese, formal influence
Arts and Crafts A late nineteenth-century decorative arts movement in Europe and U.S. that rejected industrial production in favor of handcrafted goods with simple, often geometric, designs.
Baskerville Eighteenth-century Transitional type designed in England by John Baskerville
Chromolithography color lithography; the process whereby a color image is reproduced using flat stones that have been drawn on with greasy ink or crayons. A separate stone is used for each color
Blackletter The general term for typefaces that resemble the forms of medieval script; the positive space formed by black ink overwhelms the negative white space of the paper
Bembo A fifteenth-century Old Style type designed in Venice by Aldus Manutius
Bodoni Eighteenth-century Modern typeface designed in Italy by Giambattista Bodoni
Caslon Eighteenth century Transitional type designed in England by William Caslon
Jenson-Eusebius A fifteenth-century Old Style type designed in Venice by the typographer Nicolas Jenson
Justified The spacing of the text so that the ends of lines are even
Letterpress Printing technique whereby the ink is supported on a raised surface, such as the letters of metal type
Modern Type Eighteenth-century roman type that is characterized by extreme contrast in stroke thickness, staunchly vertical stress, and hairline serifs
Old Style Roman type of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that is characterized by understated contrast, bracketed serifs, and oblique stress.
Roman A typeface style dating from the Renaissance, originally derived from Carolingian Minuscule; roman letters feature serifs
Sans Serif A roman letter or typeface that does not feature serifs
Schwabacher Blackletter type that originated in Germany in about the fifteenth-century
Slab Serif a typeface that features heavy rectangular serifs
Small Capitals uppercase letters that are sized equal to the "x-height" of a given typeface and therefore smaller than the standard uppercase letters
Stress In a typeface, this denotes the angle of the major axis around which the strokes of a letter are structured (not the angle of the strokes themselves)
Transitional Seventeenth-century roman type that is characterized by vertical stress, significant contrast, wide proportions, and thin, elegant serifs
Textura A kind of early blackletter type that was utilized in the Gutenberg Bible
Unger-Fraktur Blackletter type introduced in 1793 by Johann Friedrich Unger, who attempted to adopt the geometric structure of Modern style roman type
Woodcut Relief printing in which the image is carved into a block of wood to facilitate reproduction
X height A standardized type measurement based on the size of a lowercase letter (excluding any ascenders or descenders) such as the letter x
Rococo An Eighteenth-century unified design style that featured exuberant color, sinuous forms, and an overall emphasis on a sensual atmosphere
Job Printer A general term for a printing house and its employees that work "job to job" w/o apparent specialization or design training
Monotype An industrial machine developed in 1889, that facilitated mechanical typesetting by producing type character by character, thereby revolutionizing the field
Kunstegewerbeschule a Viennese school dedicated to the theory and practice of the decorative arts
Logotypes A visual symbol that identifies a give company or institution, such as a trademark
Jugendstil a German synonym for Art Nouveau meaning "young art," derived from the magazine Jugend
Planar a design dominated by flat planes
Orthogonal a design that is structured mostly with right angles, such as a grid
Secessionstil Literally "seccession style," a synonym for Art Nouveau as it was practiced in Vienna
Stylized Designs that appear to be structured around a set style or group of compositional rules
Symbolist a late nineteenth-century movement in literature and the other arts based in France, which focused on themes of spirituality, sensuality, and the artist's subjective experience of the world
Rectilinear a design characterized by straight lines
Ukiyo-e Literally "pictures of the floating world," it generally refers to Japanese woodblock prints that feature images of actors, courtesans, and landscape views
Vienna Secession A group of young artists in late nineteenth-century Vienna who rejected the conservative artistic conventions of the era
Whiplash Curve A defining stylistic element of Art Nouveau, it is an S curve that is suggestive of the pent-up energy of a whip suspended in mid-air
Wiener Werkstatte The "Viennese Workshops," a group of artists sun off from the Vienna Secession who wanted to raise the quality of Austrian decorative arts
Architectonic a composition structured in such a way that its forms are suggestive of the elements of architecture
Aesthetic Movement A British corollary to the French Symbolist movement in literature and the arts. Artists such as Oscar Wilde reveled in sensuality, mysticism, and beauty; it was sometimes disparagingly referred to as Decadent movement
Auriol An Art Nouveau typeface designed in 1901 by Georges Auriol that displayed an Asian influence
Arabesques The term denotes the geometric patterns that were a popular part of Art Nouveau style
Behrens-Antiqua A roman typeface designed by Peter Behrens in 1908 for the AEG corporation
Behrens-Fraktur A decorative typeface desgned by Peter Behrens in the early 1900s as a compromise between the blackletter and Art Nouveau styles
Behrens-Schrift A typeface designed by Peter Behrens in 1901 that combined elements of blackletter script and roman structure
Bijin-ga a subset of Ukiyo-e woodblock prints that showcase images of beautiful young women, mainly courtesans
Bocklin A German Art Nouveau typeface designed by Otto Weisert in 1904
Curvilinear a design characterized by fluid curving lines
Deutscher Werkbund A German organization founded in Munich in 1907 w/the intent of raising the quality, both aesthetic and functional, of the nation's industrial production
Eckmann A German typeface devised by Otto Eckmann in 1900 to reconcile Art Nouveau and blackletter elements
Em Box A unit of measurement in typography that corresponds to the size of the frame around a letter
Expressionism Generally speaking, any artistic style that focuses more on reproducing the way the world feels, as opposed to how it looks
Franklin Gothic A high-quality sans serif typeface designed in 1902 by the American Morris Fuller Benton
Gesamtkunstwerk a "total work of art," meaning a piece - originating w/the music dramas of William Wagner - that collapses every possible aesthetic experience into a unified whole
Grotesque A synonym for sans serifs type commonly used in Britain and Europe
Linotype An industrial machine developed in 1886, that facilitated mechanical typesetting by setting an entire line of type
Japonisme The European, especially French, adoption of Japanese art and fashion during the late nineteenth century
Organic Form A form in art that is derived form the natural world through its shape which is often curving, irregular, and plant-like
Created by: a_redfish