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MLT 2.2

MLT 2.2Hematological Cell Identification 07010

The Cell Smallest unit of a living structure capable of independence existence
Plasma Membrane Outer limit, boundary, maintains integrity of interior cell; Contains pore for substance transport
3 layers of Plasma Membrane 1. protein; 1. Phospholipid; 3. Protein
Cytoplasm Material inside plasma membrane; Contains organelles
Mitochondrion "Powerhouse"; Cellular respiration and energy requirement happens here; Site of protoporphyin production (Hem synthesis); contains cristae
Golgi Apparatus Granule production for granulocytes and monocytes
Lysosome Relaeses hydrolytic enzymes; Ammo for WBC to kill or destroy bacteria during phagocytosis
Endoplasmic Recticulum SMOOTH - no ribosomes; Produces lipids ROUGH - Has ribososomes (protein synthesis)
Ribososomes Made of RNA and granules of Ribonucleoprotein; Site of protein synthesis
Nucleus Round in normal, mature cells; Made of DNA; Pores for transport ; "Brain" or "Control Center"
Nucleolus in Immature cells there may be more than one; Site of Ribonucleoprotein synthesis (RNA); found in immature cells
Red Blood Cells aka "Erythrocytes"; Contains hgb- carries O2 and CO2; Biconcaved; Central Pallor- indentation in RBC
White Blood Cells aka "Leukocytes"; Defends against ( foreign substances, Microorganisms, Parasites)
5 types of WBC's 1. Neutrophil, 2. Basophil, 3. Eosinophil, 4. Lymphocytes, 5. Monocytes
Granulocytes Neutrophils, Basophils, eosinophils
Platelets Thrombocytes- Cytoplasmic fragments of Megakaryocytes; Stops bleeding
Hematopoiesis Proliferation, differation and maturation of blood cells; Hemato= blood, poiesis = formation
3 stages of hematopoiesis 1. In the fetus; 2. At birth; 3. As an adult
Hematopoiesis occurs in the: Yolk Sac, Liver, Spleen, Bone Marrow, Lymph Nodes
Hematopoiesis during fetal development 2nd week- Primitive RBC's, 2nd Month- Granulocytes and Megakaryocytes, 4th Month- Lymphocytes, 5th Month - Monocytes
Hematopoiesis in Adults (18 and older) Confined to flat bones, and the proximal ends of long bones (Femur, Humerus)
Pluripotential Stem cell Gives rise to 2 basic Stem Cells; 1. Lymphoid Stem Cell, 2. Myeloid Stem Cell
Lymphoid Stem Cells Gives rise to : T Lympohcytes and B Lymphocytes
Myeloid Stem Cell Give rise to: Erythrocytes, Granulocytes, Megakaryocytes, Monocytes
Cell Maturation Several stages of development; Each stage characterized by changes in: NUCLEUS, CYTOPLASM, CELL SIZE
Immature Nucleus 1. N/C (4:1); 2. Usually oval or round; 3. Chromatin fine and delicate; 4. Stains reddish purple; 5. Usually 1 or more nucleoli
Mature Nucleus 1. Smaller; 2. N/C low; 3. Chromatin coarse and clumped; 4. Stains blue-purple; 5. Nucleoli usually disappear; 6. Usually lobed
Immature Cytoplasm 1. Scanty, high amounts of RNA; 2. Dark blue; 3. Very few to no granules; 4. Granules azurophilic (reddish purple), primary or non-specific)
Mature Cytoplasm 1. Amount usually increases; 2. Gradual loss of RNA; 3. Less blue; 4. Specicfic or secondary granules appear
Immature cell size Usually large 10-20 um
Mature Cell Size Usuall smaller than immature cells
Criteria for cell ID ( cell size) Helps identify the stage of development; Classification- Large, Medium, or Small
Criteria for cell ID (nucleus) Shape; Relative size; Chromatin pattern; Presence of nucleoli
Criteria for cell ID ( cytoplasm) Granular vs. Non-granular; Specific or Non-specific granules; Color; Relative amount
Granulopoiesis Production of granulocytes
Granulocytes originates in: Bone Marrow form pluripotential stem cell (Colony Forming Unit- Granulocyte-Monocyte; CFU-GM)
Growth factors for CFU-GM Granulocyte-Monocyte colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF); interleukin 3
3 types of Granulocytes (B. E. N.) Basophils; Eosinophils; Neutrophils
6 Stages of differentation of Granulocytes 1. Myeloblast; 2. Promyelocyte; 3. Myelocyte; 4. Metamyelocyte; 5. Band/Stab; 6. Segmented
Myeloblast 10-20 um; small basophilic cytoplasm; Nucleus round and reddish purple with fine and delicate chromatin. Nucleus also has 1-3 nucleoli
Promyelocyte 10-20 um; Cytoplasm has azurophilic granules; non-specific or Primary granules; Nucleus round, light reddish blue with 1-2 nucleoli; N/C 3:1
what is the Last stage granulocyte differentation capable of cell division Myelocyte
Myelocyte 10-18 um; cytoplasm has specifec or secondary granules; Nucleus round or oval with no nucleoli, and is reddish blue with coarse chromatin
Basophil Myelocyte Violet blue specific granules; few but coarse; not uniform in size
Eosinophilic Myelocyte specific granules reddish orange; large; uniform in size
Neutrophil myelocyte specific granules are pinkish and very fine; "Dawn of neutrophilia"
Metamyelocyte 10-18 um; Cytoplasm is moderate with increased number of specific granules; nucleus kidney shaped or indented with clumped chromatin; N/C 1:1
Band/Stab 10-16 um; Cytoplasm same as Metamyelocyte; Nucleus rod or band shaped with clumped coarses chromatin; N/C 1:1
Segmented 10-16 um; cytoplasm abundant with full compliment of specific granules; Nucleus 2-5 lobes connected by filament; chromatin coarse and clumped
Most frequently occuring cell in peripheral blood Neutrophil
Regulation of Neutrophil Cells sequestered by RE system( Reticulum cells of spleen, Kupffer's Cells of liver
Main function of Neutrophil Phagocytosis (also capable of pinocytosis)
Phase 1 of Phagocytosis Migration and Diapeddesis (Neutrophils move into tissues thru narrow junctions between endothelial cells of blood vessels)
Phase 2 of Phagocytosis Opsonization and Recognition; Marking and recognizing bacteria and foreign bodies for ingestion)
Substances used in opsonization Antibodies and Complements
Opsonins Bacteria marked by Ab or complement
Phase 3 of Phagocytosis Ingestion, Killing and Digestion
Ingestion Neutrophil invaginates around opsonin; Opsonin engulfed to form a phagosome (phagocytic Vacuole)
Killing and Digestion Lysosomes fuse with Phagosomes to form Phagolysomes; Enzymes from granules emptied into Phagolysomes (degranulation); Enzymes kill and digest bacteria
which granulocyte is primarily in tissues exposed to the environment Eosinophils (in lungs nasal membrane and GI tract)
Life span of eosinophil 12 days
Function of Eosinophil Allergic reactions; Fights Parasites
Physiology of eosinophils Granules contain Histaminase, which inactivate histamine; Attaches to parasites and release toxic substances into parasite; Capable of phagocytosis of antigen antibody complex
Eosinophil Nucleus usually has 2 lobes with coarse and clumped chromati; Cytoplasm is reddish orange (specific granules); granules distinct and even in size
Basophil 10-16 um; Cytoplasm slightly pink to corlorless with dark violet specific granules; granules are uneven and very in size; Nucleus has 2-4 lobes and is deep blue purple wiht coarse granular chromatin
Mast cell Basophils in tissue, such as connective tissue, mucosal areas of serous membrane and bone marrow
Physiology of Basophil Functions with eosinophils in immediates delayed hypersensitivity reactions ( Ige binds to surface receptors, reacts with specific antigens; Degranulation occurs, Enzymes [heparin and histamine] released in area)
Created by: Nsikanete