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MLT 2.1 Terms

MLT 2.1 HematologyTerms and definitions 07010

Hematology TermDefinition
Hematology The study of blood
Universal Precautions (Standard) Method for controlling infection in which all blood and certain body fluids are treated as if infectious.
Blood-borne Pathogen pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Venipuncture process of obtaining a sample of venous blood
Erythrocytes A cell that contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body. Also called a red blood cell (RBC)
Leukocytes A cell that lacks hemoglobin, has a nucleus, is capable of motility, and defends the body against infection and disease by ingesting foreign materials and cellular debris, by destroying infectious agents or by producing antibodies
Thrombocytes A platelet. Crucial to normal blood clotting
Plasma liquid component of blood that still contains fibrinogen
Serum Liquid component of blood when fibrinogen is allowed to clot into fibrin
Fibrinogen Protein converted into fibrin to form blood clots; produced in liver & circulates in teh plasma
Anti-coagulant Prevents clots from forming in blood
Hemolysis Alteration or destruction of RBC's
Hemoconcentration high amount of RBC's in realtion to plasma
Hematoma Local mass of blood within organ or tissue
Immunocompromised Person can't fight off infection; Having an immune system that has been impaired by disease or treatment.
Peripheral Blood Smear a blood test that gives information about the number and shape of blood cells.
Polychromatic Stain Stain that produces many colors when seen under a microscope
Phagocytosis Ingestion and digestion of solid substances
Colony Stimulating Factor Hormorne that stimulates cell development and deiiferentation
Antibody "imunoglobin"; Substance that binds with antigen
Antigen Foreign matter that enters body
Hematopoiesis Process of maturation and development of blood cells
Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion
Ribosomes Cell organelle responsible for protein systhesis
Granulocytes ype of white blood cell filled with microscopic granules
Precursor Cells Cells that give rise to other cells
Blood and body fluids are considered potentially infectious for: 1. HIV; 2. HBV; 3. Other blood borne pathogens
The single most important source of infection BLOOD
Universal presautions protects: 1. Non-intact skin; 2. Mucus Membranes
The single most important step to prevent the spread of disease HANDWASHING
The study of blood Hematology
total adult volume of blood 5-6 liters; 7-8% of body weight
blood composed of: 1. Formed elements; 2. Fluid protein
Formed elements of blood 1. Erythrocytes- contain Hgb; 2. Leukocyte- Defend agains tviral and bacterial infections; 3. Thrombocyte- function in blood clot formation
Fluid portion of blood 1. Plasma- contains fibrinogen; 2. Serum- contains no fibrinogen (used to form clot)
Anticoagulants Prevent blood from clotting; Binds or inactivates coagulation factors
Lavender/Purple Top Contains EDTA (liquid or powder form); Chelates the calcium in blood ( forms an insoluble)
Lavender/Purple Top Preserves blood morphology; Choice fro routine hematology; Amount of EDTA is important
Excess EDTA Shrinkage of RBC's; Decreased hematocrit; Decreased ESR; Degenerated WBC; Increase MCHC; Platelet swell and break up causing an increased count
In lavender/Purple top test must be performed within how mant hours of collection 2 Hours; After 6 hours RBC's swell and WBC's show vacuolization and pyknotic nucleus (dark RBC nucleus)
Blue Top Containd Sodium CItrate 9:1; Choice for caogulation studies; Maintains stability of the coagulation factors ( Factor V- Proaccelerin, Factor VIII- Antihemophilic A)
Blue Top Maintains functional abilities of platelets: ( Used for CBC if platelet clumps in EDTA tube; Adjust the count by 10 percent to account for the dilution); Spin ad separate plasme within 30 minutes of collection
Blue top Test plasma within 2 hours of collection otherwise freeze or refrigerate; 9:1 Ratio is critical (no short draws)
Adjusting anti-coagulant in blue top Adjust amount of anticaogulant on patients with HCT above 55% ( high HCT means less plasma, less plasma needs less anticoagulant); citrate= (100 -HCT/595 -HCT) x amt of blood
Green Top Contains heparin; Prevents coagulation by: 1. Interacting with anti-thrombin, 2. Inhibiting thrombin; Causes WBC and platelet clumping; Used in special hematology and chemistry
Gray Top Contains( 1.Sodium Fluorde- preserves glucose and alcohol, 2. Potassium Oxalate- anticoagulant, binds calcium); For glucose and alcohol testing
Red Top Contains no anticaogulant; Used for most chemistry tests
Tiger Top aka " Marble top"; COntains no anticoagulant; Has silica gel at the bottom for serum and clot separation
Order of filling tubes 1. Sterile specimens, 2. Non- anticoagulated tubes ( red, Tiger), 3. Blue top, 4. Green top, 5. Purplr top, 6. Gray top
2 methods of venipuncture 1. Vacutainer, 2. Syringe
Three main venipuncture sites 1. Median Cubital- generally anchored, doesn't roll, most prefered site; 2. Basilic Vein- Lacated at inner portion of arm, tends to roll; 3. Cephalic Vein- located on outer portion of arm, skin tends to be a little tougher
Alternative venipuncture sites 1..Veins of the forearm, 2. Hands, 3. Outside the wrist
Vacutainer method- sites and veins to avoid Inside of wrist, Feet or legs of non ambulatory patients (poor blood circulation, may lead to clots), Patients with IV or hep-lock (use opposite arm), Patients with mastectomy (draw from opposite side), NEVER stick a patient more than twice
Syringe Method- used for Small fragile veins, Veins that collasp easily, Veins than can not withstand pressure of vacutainer tubes, Collection of blood culture and blood specimens
Needles to use Vacutainer Method- use multi sample needle (normal size vein, veins with good integrity); Syringe method- use 21-23 gauge needle and 10-20 cc syringe (large syringe creates more vacuum
Capillary collection- aka "micro sampling" Used in infants < 6 months old, young kids and adults (Only microsample is needed, patients with IV's, severely burned, extremely poor veins
Capillary puncture sites neonates/infants- Heel (never puncture curvature of heel, puncture depth no more than 1.6mm); Kids and adults- 3rd or 4th finger (off center of finger tip)
Types of Isolation Strict, Enteric, Wound, Respiratory, Protective
Strict Isolation Protect phlebotamist, Used in contagious diseases transmitted via (direct contact, Air); ex. Meningococcal meningitis, Active TB, Rabies, Diphtheria, Viral encephalitis, Polio, Measles and mumps, Smallpox
Enteric Isolation COntact with dysentery patients; ex. Slamonella E. Colli, Parasitic infection, Fungal infection
Respiratory Isolation Infections transmitted vua airborne droplets; Ex. Tularemia, Legionella, TB, Whooping Cough
Protective Isolation To protect the Immuno-compromised patient from infection; ex. Burn Patients, Leukemia and AIDS, Radiation, Plastic Surgery, Organ Transplant
Wound Isolation Used in open lesions and skin infections
Peripheral Smear (purpose) Examine cells under microscope; Test is called "WBC Differential" (different types of WBC's, RBC morphology, platelet estimate)
Qualities of a good smear Feathered edge with rainbow appearance, Free of holes, ridges, and waves
Staining blood smear Use Wright Stain- Polychromatic, imparts multiple colors; composed of 1. Methylene Blue, 2. eosin Y, 3. Dissolved in Methanol
Methylene Blue Stains acid components of cell shades of purple or blue; Called "Basic Dye"
Eosin Dye Stains the basic components of the cell orange or red; Called "Acidic Dye"
Principle of Wright Stain Neutral components of the cell take up both dyes and will stain a pink color; Phosphate buffer wirh pH 6.4-6.7 is added to stain for ionization ( actual staining occurs in ionization)
Qualities of properly stained slide RBC's-pink; Reticulocytes- Pinkish gray; Nucleus in lymphocytes and neutrophils- Dark purple; Eosinophils- bright orange granules; Basophils- dark blue-black granules; Monocyte cytoplasm- blue-gray; Neutrophil cytoplasm- light pink
Created by: Nsikanete