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20th Cent. Composers

20th Century Composers.

1882-1971 Igor Stravinsky
Studied under Rimsky-Korsakov Stravinsky
The Firebird ballet Stravinsky
Petrushka (ballet) Stravinsky
The Rite of Spring Stravinsky
one of his pieces incited a riot Stravinsky (The Rite of Spring)
Symphony of Psalms Stravinsky
Moved to Hollywood in 1940 Stravinsky
The Rake's Progress (opera) Stravinsky
Wrote an opera with libretto by W.H. Auden Stravinsky
Adopted twelve-tone system and composed the ballet Argon Stravinsky
Scherzo fantastique; Fireworks (orchestral works) Stravinsky
The Soldier's Tale (after World War I) Stravinsky
Rag-time; Piano Rag-Music Stravinsky
comic opera Mavra Stravinsky
Oedipus Rex; Persephone; Apollo (written for George Balanchine) Stravinsky
friends with Robert Craft Stravinsky
Buried in Venice (near Diaghliev's grave) Stravinsky
1874-1951 Arnold Schoenberg
Austrian pioneer of dodecaphony (twelve-tone system) Schoenberg
influenced by Wagner and Richard Strauss Schoenberg
Transfigured Night (for strings) Schoenberg
Sprechstimme halfway between singing and speaking (German for "speech voice")
Pierrot lunaire (a Sprechstimme piece) Schoenberg
his students: Alban Berg and Anton Webern Schoenberg
Moved from Berlin to L.A. in 1933 Schoenberg
A Survivor from Warsaw Schoenberg
Moses and Aaron (uncompleted opera) Schoenberg
taught at University of California at Los Angeles from 1936 to 1944 Schoenberg
String Trio Schoenberg
1913-1976 Benjamin Britten
Reviver of the opera in the U.K. Britten
Peter Grimes (story of a fisherman who kills two of his apprentices) Britten
Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (his composition teacher) Britten
wrote incidental music for works by his friend W.H. Auden Britten
worked with the tenor Peter Pears Britten
Founded the Aldeburgh Festival of Music Britten
Billy Budd; The Turn of the Screw; Death in Venice (operas) Britten
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra Britten
War Requiem (based on poems by Wilfred Owen) Britten
Britten's first opera Paul Bunyan
The Rape of Lucretia; Alvert Herring Britten
based on part of The Borough by George Crabbe Peter Grimes (by Britten)
A Midsummer Night's Dream; Gloriana (to commemorate the coronation of Elizabeth II); Owen Wingrave Britten
Noye's Fludde; The Prodigal Son Britten
Elizabeth II made him Baron ____ of Aldeburgh Britten
1900-1990 Aaron Copland
first American student of Nadia Boulanger in Paris in the 1920s Copland
Organ Symphony; Music for the Theater Copland
El Salon Mexico Copland
Billy the Kid; Rodeo (ballets) Copland
Appalachian Spring (ballet featuring "Simple Gifts") Copland
Third Symphony (contains Fanfare for the Common Man) Copland
Lincoln Portrait (includes spken portions of Lincoln's writings) Copland
What to Listen For in Music (educational book) Copland
studied under Rubin Goldmark Copland
The Second Hurricane (opera for high school students) Copland
Of Mice and Men; Our Town (film scores) Copland
The Heiress (film score that won him the 1949 Academy Award for best dramatic film score) Copland
Connotations (commisioned for the opening of Lincoln Center in New York City); Inscape; Proclamation Copland
The New Music; Music and Imagination; ____ on Music (books) Copland
1891-1953 Sergei Prokofiev
First, or Classical Symphony Prokofiev
The Love for Three Oranges (opera) Prokofiev
Peter and the Wolf Prokofiev
Alexander Nevsky (cantata); Lieutenant Kije (suite) [film scores] Prokofiev
Died on the same day as Stalin, March 5 (outlived Stalin by a few hours) Prokofiev
Scythian Suite; The Prodigal Son Prokofiev
Chout (the Buffoon); Le Pas d'acier (The Steel Step) [ballets for Diaghilev] Prokofiev
Rome and Juliet (ballet); War and Peace (opera) Prokofiev
Censured for "excessive formalism" Prokofiev
Tale of a Real Man (opera) Prokofiev
His 7th Symphony won him the 1952 Stalin Prize Prokofiev
Died as rehearsals began for Tale of the Stone Flower (ballet) Prokofiev
1906-1975 Dmitri Shostakovich
The Nose; Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk (operas) Shostakovich
Leningrad Symphony Shostakovich
Received the Order of Lenin in 1956 Shostakovich
Awarded the Stalin prize several times; in 1966 became the first composer to receive the Hero of Socialist Labor award Shostakovich
Had a technical mastery of the orchestra; Used melodies reminscent of Gypsy (Romani) tunes popular in eastern Europe Shostakovich
1881-1945 Bela Bartok
Roamed the Hungarian countryside with Zoltan Kodaly, collecting peasant tunes Bartok
Duke Bluebeard's Castle (opera) Bartok
The Wooden Prince (ballet) Bartok
The Miraculous Mandarin (ballet) Bartok
Mikrokosmos Bartok
Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta Bartok
Kossuth (symphonic poem) Bartok
Concerto for Orchestra; Out of Doors Bartok
Dance Suite; Divertimento; Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion Bartok
1887-1954 Charles Ives
His father, George, was a local Connecticut businessman and bandleader Ives
Studied music at Yale, but turned to insurance sales Ives
His insurance firm was the largest in New York during the 1910s Ives
Second Piano (Concord) Sonata (with movements named after Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcott, and Thoreau) Ives
Three Places in New England Ives
Won the 1947 Pulitzer Prize for his Third symphony Ives
"General William Booth Enters Into Heaven" (based on a poem by Vachel Lindsay) Ives
Variations on "America" (for organ) Ives
Holidays; Three Quarter-Tone Pieces; 114 Songs (symphonies) Ives
Essays Before a Sonata (writings) Ives
Married Harmony Twitchell Ives
1875-1937 Maurice Ravel
Rapsodie espagnole Ravel
Bolero Ravel
student of Gabriel Faure Ravel
Pavane for a Dead Princess Ravel
the French Conservatory overlooked him for the Prix de Rome four ties Ravel
Daphnis et Chloe (ballet) Ravel
Mother Goose; La Valse (ballet) Ravel
re-orchestrated Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition Ravel
his health declined after a 1932 taxi accident Ravel
unsuccessful brain surgery ended his life Ravel
Miroirs; Gaspard de la nuit Ravel
Fountains; Le Tombeau de Couperin; Ravel
The Child and the Enchantments Ravel
1898-1937 George Gershwin
worked with his older brother Ira Gershwin
Rhapsody in Blue Gershwin
Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra Gershwin
Porgy and Bess (opera based on a story by DuBose Heyward) Gershwin
"Swanee" Gershwin
Of Thee I Sing (musical that was the first to win a Pulitzer Prize in drama [1931]) Gershwin
died of a brain tumor at age 38 Gershwin
Studied with Rubin Goldmark, Henry Cowell, Wallingford Rieger, and Joseph Schillinger Gershwin
George's White Sandals Gershwin
Lady Be Good Gershwin
Funny Face Gershwin
An American in Paris Gershwin
"The Man I Love"; "I Got Rhythm"; "Someone to Watch Over Me" Gershwin
1912-1992 John Cage
American student of Arnold Schoenberg and Henry Cowell Cage
Dada composer/aleatory or "chance" music Cage
Imaginary Landscape No 4 (used 12 radios tuned to different stations) Cage
4'33" (for piano) Cage
invented the "prepared piano" Cage
Credo in US Cage
collaborated with dancer Merce Cunningham Cage
Sonatas and Interludes (won him an award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and a Guggenheim Fellowship) Cage
Music of Changes (chance music, using the book I Ching, or Book of Changes) Cage
Silence (book that chronicled the development of his thinking) Cage
HPSCHD (collaboration with Lejaren Hiller) Cage
Renga (included drawings by Thoreau) Cage
Apartment House 1776 (mixed-media piece for musicircus-two orcehstras and four vocalists) Cage
Europeras 1/2 (his first opera) Cage
1872-1958 Ralph Vaughan Williams
Revived the Tudor style and folk traditions in English music Vaughan Williams
Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis Vaughan Williams
Second (London) Symphony Vaughan Williams
First (Sea) Symphony; Third (Pastoral) Symphony; Seventh (sinfonia antarctica) Vaughan Williams
The Lark Ascending (based on a poem by George Meredith) Vaughan Williams
Sir John in Love (Shakesperarean opera featuring Fantasia on Greensleeves) Vaughan Williams
Hugh the Drover (opera) Vaughan Williams
The Pilgrim's Progress (opera) Vaughan Williams
Studied with Max Bruch and Maurice Ravel Vaughan Williams
Served as a music editor for the English Hymnal (book, as well as Songs of Praise and The Oxford Book of Carols) Vaughan Williams
Benedicite (Blessed Be) Vaughan Williams
Job: A Masque of Dancing Vaughan Williams
a setting of Riders to the Sea (by J.M. Synge, an Irish playwright) Vaughan Williams
Conducted at the Leith Hill Music Festival from 1909 to 1953 Vaughan Williams
1873-1943 Sergei Rachmaninoff
Twice turned down conductorship of the Boston Symphony Orchestra Rachmaninoff
C-Sharp Minor Prelude Rachmaninoff
Treated by hypnosis in 1901 Rachmaninoff
Second Piano Concerto (known as Rocky II) Rachmaninoff
The Isle of the Dead (symphonic poem) Rachmaninoff
Moved to the U.S. in 1917 Rachmaninoff
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Rachmaninoff
Took piano from his cousin Aleksander Siloti (who took from Franz Liszt) Rachmaninoff
Also studied with Anton Arensky, Sergey Taneyev, and Peter Tchaikovsky Rachmaninoff
Aleko (opera) Rachmaninoff
2nd Trio elegiaque (written in memory of Tchaikovsky) Rachmaninoff
Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom Rachmaninoff
The Bells (choral symphony based on the poem by Poe) Rachmaninoff
All-Night Vigil (Vesper Mass) Rachmaninoff
Variations on a Theme of Corelli Rachmaninoff
Created by: Tmon