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functions of the immune system Recognize, find and eliminate foreign things in the body
non-specific defenses of the immune system Do not have a specific target, and does not use antibodies
specific/adaptive immunity use antibodies to identify specific targets (antibodies mark substances to be eliminated)
Cell mediated immunity Specific immune response important in protecting us from cancer
humoral immunity specific immune response most important response in protecting us from bacterial infection
allergic reactions hypersensitivity, an abnormal response to a normal target.
species resistance [non-specific defense] most infectious viral or bacterial diseases only effect 1 or 2 species
mechanical barriers skin and mucus membranes help keep foreign bodies out
chemical barriers fluids covering surfaces in and on our bodies that protect us from infection
natural killer cells part of the inflammatory response, releases chemicals that help protect us
phagocytosis cells eat whatever they come across in order to protect us
inflammation occurs anytime there is an infection in tissue, it delivers and activates phagocytes and natural killer cells that prevent infection from spreading
fever decreases reproduction of many bacteria, the immune system functions better with an increase in temperature
Antibody [a protein] produced by plasma cells, they are gammaglobulins found in almost every body fluid
antibody structure all anti bodies have a constant region that determines which group of antibodies it belongs to, they also have variable regions which are the amino acids at the ends that shuffle to create new binding sites
IgA antibodies are found primarily in secretions
igD antibodies are attached to lymphocytes by the constant region,they are important for immuno memory, and they act as a receptor for lymphocytes
IgE antibodies are attached to basophils or mast cells by the constant region, they lead to allergies
IgG antibodies are found in most internal body fluids
Igm antibodies are found in blood plasma, they account for 20% of the anitbodies in our plasma, and they are found in clusters
Antigen anything that the immune system produces antibodies against or recognizes as foreign
pathogen anything that generates a disease
allergen foreign substance that causes a person to over produce IgE antibodies and therefore cause alleriges
epitope binding site on the antigen that makes it unique, [antibodies are specific to ONE epitope]
clone a set of identical cells or organisms, or the process of making that group
T-cells are cells that develop in the thymus gland [helper, memory and killer T cells]
cytokines the chemical signals released by helper T cells
helper T cells have an IgD attached to them, they function as recruiters by releasing a chemical that causes production of other cells that help in an immune response.
killer T cells (cytotoxic) are needed during a cell mediated response, they are the cell that kills a target
memory T cells inactive T cells that are produced during an immune response. they remain in the system in case of infection by that same foreign substance happens again
plasma cells (B-cells/lymphocytes) the cells that produce the antibodies
Memory B cells inactive plasma cells
macrophages Large phagocytes, a lot are found in the lymph nodes. They eat and digest things they come in contact with through phagocytosis
opsonization [to prepare for eating] prepares area for phagocytosis, and activates phagocytes as they arrive
chemotaxis attracts macrophages and neutrophils to a region. [attracts phagocytes]
vasodilation dilation in an area where phagocytes are, allows ,ore phagocytes to enter the area
lysis chemical breaks down cell membranes in an infected area.
neutralization helps fight viruses that are not inside cells
Created by: 688472874



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