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Phys2 Resp Intro

Two main components of air? Nitrogen: 79% Oxygen:21%
What is the difference b/w internal and external respiration? Internal: occurs in the mitochondria, converting O2 to CO2. External: occurs in the lungs, O2 and CO2 exchange. **External is necessary for internal to occur.
What all does external respiration include? 1.lungs. 2.Circulatory system (pulmonary and systemic circulations) **everything involved in getting O2 to the tissue and removing CO2.
External respiration: Ventilation the process by which gas is brought in and out of the lungs
External respiration: Diffusion the process by which gas moves between the circulation and the lung & the circulation and the cells. **Gas diffusion moves down PARTIAL PRESSURE gradients
External respiration: Perfusion the process by which gases in the blood are transported around the body from lungs to cells and vice versa
What drives all the processes of external respiration? BULK FLOW
When does diffusion of gas down its partial pressure gradient stop? when EQUILIBRATION has occured **Remember partial pressure are the driving force, so when they equal, no net movement will occur.
PO2 atmospheric? PO2 upper respiratory tract? PO2 alveoli? PO2 venous circulation? PO2 interstitial? atmospheric: 159mmHg (21% of 760mmHg). Upper resp tract: 149mmHg (due to the addition of water). Alveoli: 100mmHg (becomes 96mmHg in arterial BL). Venous: 40mmHg. Interstitial: 20mmHg
What are the 2 O2 partial pressure gradients at the: 1.BL-gas interface? 2.BL-cell interface? 1.gas:100 - BL:40mmHg 2.BL:96 - Cell:20mmHg
is the CO2 PP gradients larger than O2 PP gradients? NO! 1.BL-gas interface:46-40mmHg **Arterial BL has a PCO2 of 40mmHg **Venous BL has a PCO2 of 46mmHg
How can CO2 still diffuse across such a small gradient (6mmHg)? CO2 has a faster diffusion rate b/c it is much more soluble than O2.
How does perfusion and ventilation maintain diffusion? by creating a bulk flow system. They keep the PO2 high in the BL so that there is a continuously HIGH driving force (large partial pressure difference) at the BL-Cell interface.
Dalton's law for partial pressure? Px = Total Pressure X Fractional conc of X. **Therefore Px=Ptotal X Fx
Dalton's law equation for PO2 upper respiratory tract? PIO2 = (Patmospheric - Pwater) X FIO2. **Must add in partial pressure of water vapor that is present inside the body: PIO2 = (760-47) X 0.21. **149mmHg**
What is the partial pressure of water vapor in the upper respiratory tract? 47mmHg. Must be subtracted from total atmospheric pressure before the 21% concentration of O2 can be multiplied.
How does partial pressure of a gas relate to partial pressure of a solution? The gas will dissolve into the solution until the rate of dissolving equals the rate of that molecule leaving (equilibrium) **it will become the PP that the gas is.
How do alveoli make diffusion more efficient? since greater, thinner surface area increases diffusion, alveoli make the diffusion SA 500X greater
Describe the tissue layers O2 travels to leave the alveoli and enter the BL 1.surfactant. 2.Alveolar epithelium. 3.interstitium (BM). 4.Capillary endothelium.
What also increases SA in the lungs besides Alveoli? BRANCHING!! The airways branches 23 times from the trachea. 1.Conduction Zone: Branches 1-16. 2.Respiratory Zone: Branches 17-23 (SA increases dramatically once the terminal bronchioles start).
Created by: WeeG



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