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Rad Pro Ch 2


1. Absorbed dose amount of energy absorbed per unit mass
Absorption transference of electromagnetic energy to the atoms of material
Attenuation the reduction in the number of primary photons in the x-ray beam through absorption and scatter as the beam passes through the patient in its path
Auger effect This energy may be released as a characteristic photon, or it may be released as an electron, an outer-shell electron that is ejected from its shell, second one is the process is known as the Auger effect
Characteristic photon, x-ray, fluorescent radiation when an electron from an outer shell drops down to fill an inner shell vacancy x-ray photon and lost an inner shell electron as a result. The energy of a characteristic photon is equivalent to the different in energy level between the two shells
Coherent scattering The process wherein a low-energy photon (typically less than 10 keV) interacts with an atom as a whole, and the atom responds by releasing the excess energy it has received in the form of a scattered photon that has the same wavelength
Compton scattered electron or secondary or recoil electron an energetic electron dislodged from the outer shell of an atom of the irradiated object as a result of interacting with an incoming x-ray photon.
Compton scattering between an incoming x-ray photon and a loosely bound outer-shell electron of an atom in the irradiated object.ionizing the atom, in a new direction. This process accounts for most of the scattered radiation produced during diagnostic procedures
Effective atomic number a composite, or weighted average, of the atomic numbers of the many chemical elements composing a given biologic tissue
Exit or image-formation photons photons that emerge from the tissue and strike the image receptor
Fluorescent yield the number of x-rays emitted by an atom per inner-shell vacancy
Mass density Quantity of matter per unit volume. It is generally specified in units of kilograms per cubic meter or grams per cubic centimeter
mAs The product of electron tube current and the amount of time in seconds that the x-ray tube is activated.
Pair production Interaction between an incoming photon of at least 1.022 MeV and an atom of irradiated biologic tissue in which the photon approaches, strongly interacts with the nucleus of the atom of the irradiated tissue, and disappears
kVp the highest energy level of photons in the x-ray beam
Photodisintegration An interaction that occurs above 10 MeV in high-energy radiation therapy machines in which a high-energy photon collides with the nucleus of an atom, absorbing all of the photon's energy
Photoelectric absorption An interaction between an x-ray photon and an inner-shell electron in which the photon surrenders all its kinetic energy to the orbital electron and ceases to exist
Photoelectron The electron ejected from its inner-shell orbit during the process of photoelectric absorption.
Primary Radiation Radiation that emerges directly from the x-ray tube collimator and moves without deflection toward a wall, door, viewing window, and so on. Also called direct radiation or the useful beam.
Radiographic contrast Differences in density level between adjacent anatomic structures on a completed radiographic image.
Radiographic density The degree of overall blackening on a radiographic image that has been completed.
Radiographic fog Undesirable, additional density on a completed radiographic image caused by scattered radiation reaching the image receptor.
Radiographic image receptor Phosphor plate, digital radiography receptor, or radiographic film.
Small-angle scatter Photons that pass through the patient being radiographed, interact with the atoms of the body, and are deflected at such a small angle that they can reach the image receptor, thereby degrading radiograph by producing small amounts of radiographic fog.
Created by: cconley53