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1. Endocrine System

Overview, structures, and functions

General functions of the endocrine system. Regulate Metabolism Regulate Growth, Development & Reproductive Regulate homeostasis
What controls hormone secretion? Negative Feedback, Nervous system, certain organs
What are the structures of the endocrine system? Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid(4), Thymus, Adrenal(2), pancreas, testes & overies
What are the mechanisms of hormone action? 1) Steroid Hormone 2) Non-steroid hormone
Steroid Hormone Enters the target cell and binds with intracellular receptors.
Non-steroid Hormone Binds to a receptor at the surface of the target cell, then a second messenger delivers the hormone's message to the cell.
Types of Hormone Chemistry *Steroids *Amines *Proteins
Types of Steroids Aldosterone, Progesterone, Testosterone,
Steroids are synthesized.... From cholesterol
Types of Amines Nor-epinephrine, epinephrine, thyroxine
Amines are synthesized... from the amino acid tyrosine
Thyroxine is also know as T3 T4
Types of Proteins, Glycoproteins, & Polypeptides Insulin and parathyroid hormone
Pituitary Gland Releases 8 hormones. 6 from the anterior lobe and 2 from the posterior lobe.
Pituitary's Anterior Lobe Is affected by chemicals transported by blood.
Pituitary's Posterior Lobe Is affected by nerve impulses sent from the hypothalamus.
Growth Hormone (GH) Targets bone and skeletal muscles to promote growth.
Growth Hormone is regulated by GHRF and GHRIF
What increases blood glucose level? Growth hormone
Prolactin Targets mammary tissue to promote milk formation.
PRLRF & PRLRIF regulates Prolactin Hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Targets follicular cells of the thyroid to secrete hormones T3 and T4
TSHRF regulates Thyroid Stimulation Hormone
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Targets the adrenal cortex to cause secretion of cortisol.
ACTHRF regulates Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone In males- targets seminiferous tubules to promote sperm cell reproduction In Females- targets follicles in ovaries to promote egg development and secretion of estrogen
What promotes the secretion of estrogen Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Luteninizing Hormone In Males it targets interstitial cells to secrete testosterone.
Luteninizing Hormone In Females it promotes ovulation of the egg and secretion of progesterone
LHRF regulates Luteninizing Hormone
Posterior Lobe Hormones Oxytocin & Antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin Hormone Targets smooth muscles of the breasts and uterus to promote milk release and contractions.
Antidiuretic Hormone Targets the kidneys to promote conservation of water in the blood
Thyroid Removes iodine from the blood
Follicular cell respond to TSH by secreting the thyroid hormone T3 & T4
Thyroid Extra follicular cells secretes calcitonin
Calcitonin Decreases the blood calcium level and stimulates osteoblast cells to deposit calcium in bone tissue.
Parathyroid Glands All four secrete the hormone parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid Hormone Increases the blood calcium level and stimulates osteoclast.
Adrenals Also called Suprarenal Glands
Adrenal Medulla Deep portion, secrets the hormones nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.
Norepinephrine primarily increases blood pressure other effects; increase heart rate, and metabolic rate
Epinephrine Primarily increases heart rate and forces contraction.
Epinephrine increases blood glucose level and dilates airways
Adrenal Cortex Has 3 zones; Outter zone, Middle Zone and Inner Zone
Outter Zone secretes the hormone aldosterone
Aldosterone increases sodium re-absorption in the kidneys and increases blood pressure
Aldosterone is a mineralcorticoid hormone
Middle Zone Secretes Cortisol, which reduces inflammation, increases blood glucose level and fights stress
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone
Inner Zone Secretes gonadocorticoid hormone which are small amounts of estrogen and other sex hormones
Pancreas An endocrine gland and producer of digestive enzymes.
The endocrine region of the pancreas Islets
Pancreatic islets contain 3 types of cells: Alpha Beta Delta
Alpha Cells secrets glucagon, which increases blood glucose level
Beta Cells Secretes insulin, which decreases the blood glucose level
Delta Cells Secretes somatostation, which is thought to affect glucogon and insulin secretion
Type I diabetes "Juvenile onset" a failure of beta cells to secrete insulin
Type II diabetes "Adult Onset" a failure of receptors to respond to insulin.
Long term effects of diabetes blindness, amputation, stroke, kidney failure
Signs / Symptoms of diabetes hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyuria, & weight loss
Thymus Secretes the hormone thymosins.
Thymosins a hormone that stimulates T lymphocyte (white blood cells)
Pineal Secretes hormone melatonin
Melatonin regulates sleep.
Spermatagium A large and primitive cell with 46 chromosomes.
1 Primary spermatocyte Has 46 chromosomes and begins meiosis.
2 Secondary spermatocyte divides and produces two cells each having 23 chromosomes
4 spermatids third stage and divides into 4 cells each having 23 chromosomes Then mature and a flagellum is added
Spermatogenesis Stages 1 Spermatagonium 1 primary 2 secondary 4 spermatids
General functions of the male/Female reproductive system produce sex cells, secrete hormones, and development
Spermatozoa a mature sperm cell that has a flagellum and acrosome
Interstitial cells located between the seminferous tubules of the testes. Responds to LH by secreting testosterone
Sustentacular Cell Population of protective cells located in the seminferous tubules. Assists and protects developing sperm cells.
Testes secretion of testosterone by intersitial cells
Epididyms stores sperm cell site at which sperm acquire motility.
Vas deferns ductus diferens
vas deferns stores mature sperm cells; transports sperm from the epididyms to the ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct transports mature sperm from the vas deferns to the urethra
seminal vesicles produce a fluid that contains the sugar fructose; the energy source for the sperm cells
prostate produces a fluid that has a slightly basic (alkaline) pH to protect sperm cells
cowper's (bulbourethral) glands provide a fluid that contains mucus to protect sperm cells
urethra site of blending of components of semen; transports semen to the exterior of the body
Oogonium large primitive cell with 46 chromosomes
J- shaped tubular structure positioned above each testis Epididymis
{aired male gonads which contain seminiferous tubules and interstitial and sustentacular cells Testes
paired tubular structures extending from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct Vas-Deferns
narrowed passageway extending from vas defernes to the urethra ejaculatory duct
Areas within the penis Corpora cavernosa (paired structures which fill with blood during erection) and the corpora spongiosum which contains the urethra
oocytes the female gamete (eggs)
Ovaries site of oogenesis and ovulation of the secondary oocyte
primary oocyte 46 chromosomes
zygote a fertilized egg, has 46 chromosomes
Ovarian follicular cells secrete estrogen in response to FSH
Following ovulation the corpus luteum secrets progesterone in response to LH
Uterine Tube Transport the secondary oocyte to the uterus and is the site of fertilization
uterus site of implantation, growth, and development of an embro
Menstrual Cycle Average 28 days
Phases of the menstrual cycle Menstrual Period Pre-ovulation Post-ovulation
The time in which ovarian follicles respond to FSH by enlarging Menses
Pre-Ovulatory Phase follicles enlarge and secrete estrogen endometrium thickens
Ovulation releases the 2nd oocyte on aprox day 14
progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum causes the endometrium to thicken Post Ovulatory phase
Created by: alesha945



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