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Exam 1 - part 5

Mature Erythrocyte

What stage of developing RBC is released from the bone marrow to finish production of hemoglobin? Polychromatophilic erythrocyte
What is the cell membrane made of? A lipid bilayer
The lipid bilayer is made up of what 3 major components? Proteins - 52% Lipids - 40% Carbohydrates - 8%
The lipid portion of the cell membrane can be broken down into 3 types - what are they? 1. Unesterified cholesterol 2. Phospholipids 3. Free fatty acids/glycolipids
The two types of proteins which make up the lipid bilayer are what? Integral and peripheral proteins
What are the integral proteins' 2 subcategories? 1. Glycophorins (A,B, and C) 2. Band 3
What are the 8 proteins of the cytoskeleton? 1. Spectrin 2. Actin 3. Band 4.1 4. Ankyrin 5. Band 4.9 6. Adducin 7. Tropomyosin 8. Tropomodulin
The amount of cholesterol within the membrane depends directly on what? The level of plasma cholesterol.
What does increased amounts plasma cholesterol cause? An increase of viscosity of the membrane.
The backbone of the membrane is represented by _______? Phospholipids
What contributes to the fluidity of the membrane? Phospholipids
Antigenic structures of a cell membrane are determined by what? Glycolipids
Peripheral proteins below the inner leaflet of the membrane help to influence the ________ of the membrane. Deformability
M & N antigens can be found on which glycophorin? Glycophorin A
Glycophorin B contains which antigens? S and s
What is the role of Glycophorin C? This is the site of gerbic antigens and also serves as a point of attachment of the cytoskeleton
Band 3 is a channel for which 2 anions? Bicarbonate and Flouride
Which 2 integral proteins serve as a point of attachment for the cytoskeleton? Glycophorin C and Band 3
Lattice work formed below the membrane to contribute towards structure is better known as what? The cytoskeleton
What is the role of the protein spectrin? This forms the alpha and beta chain dimer to eventually form tetramers to make the netting.
What is the role of the protein actin? To bring and join dimers together
What 5 proteins have a part in the junctional complex of the cytoskeleton? 1. Band 4.9 2. Tropomyosin 3. Adducin 4. Tropomodulin 5. Band 4.1
What is the role of the protein Band 4.1? It plays a part in the junctional complex and also aids in the linkage of the cytoskeleton to Glycophorin C.
What is the role of the protein ankyrin? Connects the dimer to band 3 with help from Band 4.2 (aka palladin)
Membrane permeability controls what? Cell volume
What is the intracellular concentration of Na & K? Na:15mmol/L and K:85mmol/L
What is the extracellular concentration of Na & K? Na:140mmol/L and K:5mmol/L
The gradient of membrane permeability is maintained by the _______ pump? ATPase
______ Na leave the cell for every _____ K. 2:1
Water follows (Sodium or Potassium). Sodium
If a leakage of Na into the cell occurs we would see (decreased or increased) cell volume? Increased
Calcium is found in (low or high) levels intracellularly? Low
If Calcium were to leak into the cell, what aspect of that cell would change? What is this new form called? The shape would no longer be biconcave. It would become an echinocyte.
What are the 4 pathways that control erythrocyte metabolism? 1. Embden-Meyerhof Pathway 2. Hexose Monophosphate Shunt 3. Rapaport-Leubering Pathway 4. Methemoglobin Reductase Pathway
The Ebden-Myerhoff Pathway is also known as what? Anaerobic glycolysis
How much ATP is produced at the end of the Ebden-Myerhoff pathway from 1 Glucose. 1 Glucose = 2 ATP
What is the Ebden-Myerhoff pathway used to maintain? ATPase pumps and the phosphorylation of membrane proteins.
The hexose monophosphate shunt pathway starts from the formation of what? Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
What is the primary reaction of the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway? NADP+ to NADPH
The reducing agent of the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway is ______? Glutothion reductase
What is the role of the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway? To prevent the formation of free radicals (Cysteine-S to Cysteine-SH)
If Cysteine-S is not reduced during the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway, what will occur? The hemoglobin will be denatured and Heinz Bodies will be formed.
The plucking of Heinz bodies from a RBC will lead to what? Shortened cell survival time and possible anemias.
The Rapaport-Leubring pathway ends in the production of what? 23DPG
What is the role of 23DPG? This increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin and prevents it from being reabsorbed.
What is the role of the Methemoglobin Reductase pathway? The use of NADH+ as a cofactor to reduce ferric iron to it's reduce ferrous state.
The (ferric or ferrous)form of iron is capable of carrying oxygen. Ferrous
A build up of the ferric form of iron could lead to what condition? Hypoxia
RBC Morphology is evaluated on what 5 criteria? 1. Color 2. Size 3. Shape 4. Inclusions 5. Abnormal distribution patterns
The color of a cell is also known as the _____ of a cell? Chromia
What is the color of a RBC representative of? Hemoglobin content
1/3 or less of the cell is an area of pallor. This would be considered _______? Normochromic
If greater than 1/3 of the cell has an area of pallor, we would consider this cell to be _______? Hypochromatic
When a cell is multi-colored we call it what? Polychromatic
What is the normal size of a RBC? 7-7.5 microns
A small RBC would be refered to as ______? A large RBC would be _______? Microcytic; Macrocytic
Any change in shape (other than round) to a RBC is known as _______? Poikilocytosis
What is a Howell-Jolly body? A fragment of the nucleus
Describe basophilic stippling. Purple/Black specks that are aggragated ribosomes.
What are pappenheimer bodies? These are iron deposits
Reminants of spindle fibers left in a RBC would be called? A Cabot Ring
What is the normal arrangement/distrubution of RBC? A monolayer with a tendency not to aggregate.
This arrangement results from a increase in plasma protein and may appear as "stacked coins". Rouleaux
Agglutination refers to what? The clumping of RBC.
Autoantibodies would cause (Rouleaux or Agglutination) formation to occur? Agglutination
Created by: AshleySchutz