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Exam 1 - part 3


What are the 3 processes of hematopoiesis? 1. Proliferation 2. Differentiation 3. Maturation
Blood cells are replaced through the process of ______? Proliferation
Define differentiation. Dividing cell gives rise to progeny that differ from it.
Differentiated cells become fully functional through the process of what? Maturation
Megakaryopoiesis is the process of forming what type of cells? Platelets
The youngest form of a cell is known as a ______ cell. Blast
Progenitor cells come from stem cells under the influence of what? Growth factors
What cell marker is used to identify stem cells? CD34
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets are committed (myeloid or lymphoid) progenitor cells. Myeloid
Lymphoid progenitor cells include what 3 types of cells? B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells
Progenitor cells make up what percent of precursor cells? 3%
What are 4 effects of growth factors? 1. To promote cell survival 2. To control and regulate differentiation 3. To promote proliferation 4. To enhance functional activity of terminally differentiated progeny
Growth factors are also known as _______. Cytokines
What are growth factors produced by? Stromal cells in the bone marrow
Growth factors work through the interaction with what? Cell receptors
What does it mean for a growth factor to be pleiotrophic? That they are able to act on more than one cell type.
Growth factors show redundancy, which means what? More than one growth factor can have the same effect.
Growth factors are (antagonistic or synergistic)? Synergistic
The JAK-STAT cytokine receptor is activated through what? Phosphorylation
Once JAK-STAT is activated,it sends signals to the cell to start what process? Transcription
Embryonic Hematopoiesis begins on what day of gestation? And occurs where? Day 18; in the yolk sac
Primitive erythroblasts come from ________ in the yolk sak? Blood islands
Fetal hematopoiesis begins in what month of developement? The second month
Fetal developement occurs where in the body? Liver
The liver is the primary site of hematopoiesis until what month in development? The sixth month
Adult hematopoiesis begins at what month of development? The sixth month
At the 6th month of fetal development, the liver decreases blood cell production and what takes over? The bone marrow
(Medullary or Extramedullary) hematopoiesis is considered normal in the adult. Medullary - production occurs totally in the bone marrow unless a disease state causes fetal sites to begin production again.
Red marrow is hematopoietically (active or inactive). Active
Inactive marrow occurs here where hematopoeitc tissue is replaced by adipocytes for structural support. Yellow Marrow
True or False: Children have less red marrow. False, children have more red marrow. The more we age, the more adipocytes replace hematopoietic tissue.
Define hematopoietic tissues. The tissues and organs involved in proliferation, maturation, and destruction of blood cells.
MALT stands for? Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
What are the 5 hematopoietic tissues? 1. MALT 2. Spleen 3. Lymph Nodes 4. Thymus 5. Bone Marrow
MALT is a collection of what three types of cells? Lymphocytes, Monocytes, and Macrophages
What are the primary roles of MALT? Phagocytic and immunologic function.
The largest collection of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes are found in what hematopoietic tissue? The spleen
The spleen has what 4 functions? 1. Culling 2. Pitting 3. Immunologic 4. Storage
The removal of old cells is called what? Culling
What is the process of removing unwanted parts of a cell. Pitting
33% of the body's platelets are absorbed and stored by the _______? Spleen
The liver is (better or worse)than the spleen at pitting. Worse due to the fact that blood flow is slower in the liver.
Germinal centers become enlarged during ________? Infection
What is a Howell-Jolly Body? A piece of DNA that is not removed during hematopoiesis.
How does the spleen show an immunologic function? It serves as a place of phagocytes and lymphocytes to mount a response.
T-cells migrate to the _______ to acquire cellular markers. Thymus
What percent of T-cells actually leave the thymus with markers? 5%
The lymph node is the site of (T-cell or B-cell) maturation? B-cells
The lymph nodes have large amounts of what 2 cell populations? Phagocytes and lymphocytes
What is the primary site of hematopoeisis? The bone marrow
What is an erythroid island? A central macrophage surrounded by developing red blood cells.
What is the purpose of an erythroid island? To transfer info between a macrophage to the surrounding red blood cells so that it may mature.
Created by: AshleySchutz