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DSST Computers #11

QuestionAnswer
4GL Fourth-generation language. Nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database.
Ajax, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response to user requests.
Analysis phase Step in system development that consists of two major activities: (1) conduct a preliminary investigation, and (2) perform detailed analysis.
API Application programming interface; collection of tools that programmers use to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system.
Application generator Program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality.
Assembly language Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.
ATOM XML application that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.
Benchmark test Test that measures the performance of hardware or software.
C Programming language developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories used for business and scientific applications.
Case control structure Type of selection control structure that can yield one of three or more possibilities
COBOL Common Business-Oriented Language. Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the early 1960s.
Compiler Separate program that converts an entire source program into machine language before executing it.
Computer program Series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks
Computer security plan Written summary of all the safeguards that are in place to protect an organization's information assets.
computer-aided software engineering (CASE) Software tools designed to support one or more activities of system development, typically including diagrams to support both process and object modeling.
Control structure Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. Also called a construct.
Custom software Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or at a user's request.
Design phase Phase of the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) if necessary, acquire hardware and software and (2) develop all of the details of the new or modified information system.
Direct conversion Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new system on a certain date. Also called abrupt cutover.
Documentation Collection and summarization of data and information.
Dreamweaver Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that allows Web developers to create, maintain, and manage professional Web sites
dynamic HTML (DHTML) Type of HTML that allows Web developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in a Web page.
e-zine Publication available on the Web. Also called electronic magazine.
Electronic magazine Publication available on the Web. Also called e-zine.
Expression Web Microsoft's Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to create professional, dynamic, interactive Web sites.
Feasibility Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization.
Feasibility study Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing.
Flash Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that enables Web developers to combine interactive content with text, graphics, audio, and video.
Focus groups Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to design or develop an application. See also joint application design (JAD).
HTML Hypertext Markup Language. Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web.
IDE (integrated development environment) Includes program development tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering program code, a compiler and/or interpreter, and a debugger.
Implementation phase Phase of system development during which the new or modified system is constructed, or built, and then delivered to the users. Four major activities performed include: (1) develop programs, (2) install and test the new system, (3) train users, and (4) con
Information system (IS) Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information.
Interpreter Program used to convert a source program into machine language and then executes the machine language instructions.
Java Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.
JavaScript Interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic content and interactive elements to a Web page.
Joint-application design (JAD) Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to design or develop an application. See also focus groups.
Machine language The only language a computer directly recognizes, using a series of binary digits or a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits.
Maintaining Act of correct errors or adding enhancements to an existing program.
Multimedia authoring software Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an interactive application and that often is used for computer-based training and Web-based presentations.
Nonprocedural language Type of programming language in which a programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from files or a database.
object-oriented programming (OOP) language Programming language used to implement an object-oriented design.
operation, support, and security phase Phase of system development that consists of three major activities: (1) perform maintenance activities, (2) monitor system performance, and (3) assess system security.
Outsource Having a source outside a company develop software for the company. Some companies outsource just the software development aspect of their IT operation, while others outsource more or all of their IT operation.
Packaged software Mass-produced, copyrighted, prewritten software available for purchase.
Parallel conversion Conversion strategy where the old system runs alongside the new system for a specified time.
Per l Practical Extraction and Report Language. Scripting language developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++.
Phased conversion Conversion strategy used by larger systems with multiple sites where each location converts at a separate time.
Phases Categories into which system development activities are grouped: (1) planning phase, (2) analysis phase, (3) design phase, (4) implementation phase, and (5) support phase.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Free, open source scripting language.
Pilot conversion Conversion strategy where only one location in a company uses a new system - so it can be tested.
Planning phase Step in system development that begins when a steering committee receives a project request.
PowerBuilder Powerful program development tool developed by Sybase that is best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications.
Preliminary investigation Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing. Also called feasibility study.
Procedural language Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions. Often called a third-generation language (3GL).
Program development Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs.
Program development life cycle (PDLC) Part of the implementation phase of the system development cycle that follows six steps: (1) analyze the requirements, (2) design the solution, (3) validate the design, (4) implement the design, (5) test the solution, and (6) document the solution.
Program development tool Program that provides a user-friendly environment for building programs.
Programmer Person who writes and modifies computer programs. Also called a developer.
Programming language Set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer.
Programming team A group of programmers that may develop programs during the program development cycle.
Project leader Member of a project team who manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project.
Project management Process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development.
Project management software Software that assists in the planning, scheduling, and controlling of development projects.
Project manager Member of a project team who controls the activities during system development.
Project request Written, formal request for a new or modified system. Also called a request for system services.
Prototype Working model of a proposed system.
RAD Rapid application development. Method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed.
Repetition control structure Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met. Also called a loop.
RSS 2.0 Really Simple Syndication; specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.
Scope The goal, required activities, time estimates for each activity, cost estimates for each activity, order of activities, and activities that can take place at the same time during system development.
Scripting language Interpreted language that typically is easy to learn and use.
Selection control structure Type of control structure that tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition.
Sequence control structure Type of control structure that shows one or more actions following each other in order.
SharePoint designer Web page authoring program that is part of the Microsoft Office and SharePoint families of products.
Source program Program that contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted to machine language.
SQL Query language used with databases that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.
Standards Sets of rules and procedures an organization expects employees to accept and follow.
Steering committee Decision-making body in a company.
System Set of components that interact to achieve a common goal.
System development Set of activities used to build an information system, including planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support.
System development life cycle (SDLC) Collection of phases in system development.
System proposal Document that assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution and then recommends the most feasible solution for a project.
Systems analyst Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. Also called a system developer.
Third generation language (3GL) Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions. Also called a procedural language.
Training Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in a system.
Users Anyone for whom the system is being built.
Value-added reseller (VAR) Company that purchases products from manufacturers and then resells these products to the public - offering additional services with the product.
VBScript Visual Basic, Scripting Edition. Subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages.
Visual programming environment (VPE) Graphical interface in a visual programming language that allows programmers to drag and drop objects to develop programs.
Visual programming language Programming language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code.
Web page authoring software Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects with interactive content.
Web page authors Designers of Web pages.
WML Wireless markup language. Subset of XML that allows Web page authors to design pages specifically for microbrowsers.
XHTML eXtensible HTML. Markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other personal mobile devices.
XML Extensible Markup Language format for sharing data that allows Web developers to create customized tags, as well as use predefined tags, used for developing a single Web site whose content can be formatted to display appropriately on various devices.
Created by: pinetreeacademy