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DSST Computers #4

QuestionAnswer
AC Adapter External power supply, used by some external peripherals, that converts AC power into DC power that the peripheral requires.
Access Time Measurement of the amount of time it takes the process to read data, instructions, and information from memory.
Adapter Card Circuit board that enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals.
Arithmetic Logic Unit Component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
Backside Bus (BSB) Bus that connects the processor to cache.
Bay Opening inside the system unit in which additional equipment can be installed.
Binary System Number system used by computers that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits.
Bit The smallest unit of data a computer can process. Bit is short for binary digit
Bluetooth Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data.
Bus Electrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer, allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other.
Byte Eight bits that are grouped together as a unit. A byte provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters.
Cache Area of memory that stores the contents of frequently used data or instructions.
Chip Small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched.
Clock Speed Pace of the system clock, measured by the number of ticks per second.
Connector Device that joins a cable to a port.
Control Unit Component of a processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
Digital Representation of data using only two discrete states: on (1) and off (0).
Docking Station External device that attaches to a mobile computer or device and provides power connections to peripherals, along with memory cards, optical disc drives, and other devices.
Drive Bay Rectangular opening inside the system unit that typically holds disk drives.
Dual-Core Processor Processor chip that contains two separate processor cores.
eSATA Port Short for external SATA; special-purpose port that allows you to connect an external SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) hard disk to a computer.
Expansion Bus Bus that allows the processor to communicate with peripherals.
PC Card Thin, credit-card-sized removable flash memory device that primarily is used today to enable notebook computers to access the Internet wirelessly.
Peripheral Device that connects to a system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer.
Port Point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so it can send data to or receive information from the computer.
Port replicator External device that attaches to a mobile computer to provide connections to peripherals through ports built into the device.
Power supply Component of the system unit that converts wall outlet AC power to the DC power that is used by a computer.
Processor Electronic component on a computer's motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. Also called CPU or central processing unit. See also central processing unit (CPU).
Quad-core processor Chip with four separate processor cores.
RAM Type of memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices. Programs and data are loaded into random access memory from storage devices such as a hard disk and remain in random access memory as long as the computer has continuo
Read only memory(ROM) Type of nonvolatile memory that is used to store permanent data and instructions.
SAS Serial-attached SCIS; newer type of SCSI that transmits at much faster speeds than parallel SCSI.
SCSI port Special high-speed parallel port to which peripherals, such as disk drives and printers, can be attached.
Sound card Adapter card that enhances the sound generating capabilities of a personal computer by allowing sound to be input through a microphone and output through external speakers or headset.
System bus Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory.
System clock Small quartz crystal circuit that is used by the processor to control the timing of all computer operations.
System unit Case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process data.
USB Flash Drive Flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device.
USB Hub Device that plugs in a USB port on the system unit and contains multiple USB ports in which cables from USB devices can be plugged.
USB Port Port that can connect up to 127 different peripherals with a single connector type.
Video Card Adapter card that converts computer output to a video signal that travels through a cable to a monitor, which displays an image on the screen. See also graphics card.
Volatile Memory Type of memory that loses its contents when a computer's power is turned off.
Expansion Card Circuit board that enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals. See also adapter card.
Expansion Slot Socket on a motherboard that can hold an adapter card.
ExpressCard Module Removable flash memory device that adds memory, communications, multimedia, and security capabilities to mobile computers.
ExpressCard Slot Special type of expansion slot in desktop, notebook, and mobile computers that holds an ExpressCard.
FireWire Hub Device that plugs in a FireWire port on the system unit and contains multiple FireWire ports in which you plug cables from FireWire devices.
FireWire Port Port that can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds.
Firmware ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information, recorded on the chips when they were manufactured.
Flash Memory Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten.
Front Side Bus Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory. See also system bus.
Gigabyte (GB) Approximately 1 billion bytes.
Gigahertz (GHz) One billion ticks of the system clock per second.
Graphics Card Adapter card that converts computer output into a video signal that travels through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen.
Hi-Speed USB More advanced and faster type of USB.
IrDA Port Port that uses infrared light waves to transmit signals between a wireless device and a computer.
Kilobyte (KB or K) Exactly 1,024 bytes.
L1 Cache A type of memory cache that is built directly into the processor chip, with a capacity of 8 KB to 16 KB.
L2 Cache A type of memory cache that is slightly slower than L1 cache, but has a much larger capacity, ranging from 64 KB to 16 MB.
Megabyte (MB) Approximately 1 million bytes.
Memory Electronic components in a computer that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions.
Memory Cache Cache that helps speed the processes of a computer by storing frequently used instructions and data.
Memory Card Removable flash memory device, usually no bigger than 1.5" in height or width, that you insert and remove from a slot in a personal computer, game console, mobile device, or card reader/writer.
Memory Module Small circuit board that houses RAM chips and is held in a memory slot on the motherboard.
Memory Slots Slots on the motherboard that hold memory modules.
Microprocessor Term used by some computer and chip manufacturers to refer to a processor chip for a personal computer. See also processor.
MIDI Port Special type of serial port that connects the system unit to a musical instrument, such as an electronic keyboard.
Motherboard Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic components attached to it and others built into it. See also system board.
Multi-Core Processor Single chip with two or more separate processor cores.
Nanosecond One billionth of a second.
Nonvolatile Memory Type of memory that does not lose its contents when a computer's power is turned off.
Created by: pinetreeacademy