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Phys2 Lect 1

QuestionAnswer
Key functions of CV system 1.Move nutrients & Gases. 2.Major Temperature regulator. 3.Remove metabolic waste and deliver it to the kidneys.
Only two places in the body where short distance diffusion occurs? What distribution method is used elsewhere throughout the body? 1.Lungs (alveoli). 2.Capillaries. **Bulk flow is used everywhere else, driven by the pressure generated by systole.
Since the R and L sides of the heart are two different pumps, how much BL does each side pump out? THE SAME AMOUNT (usually 5L/min).
What happens when the R side of the heart's output is less than the L side's? BL will accumulate in the periphery, backing up is tissues b/c more is being pumped out into the systemic circulation.
What happens when the L side of the heart's output is less than the R side's? BL will accumulate in the lungs, leading to vascular congestion in the lungs: PULMONARY EDEMA.
Is the L ventricle thicker than the R? YES, 2X
Why is it functionally advantageous to have two seperate pumps? CONSERVES ENERGY. It allows there to be a low pressure pump (pulmonary:deoxy 20mmHg) and a high pressure pump (systemic:oxy 100mmHg)
How can VSD lead to cyanosis in a Patient? What kind of hypertension can this cause? B/c the oxygenated BL in the L ventricle will move from high to low pressue back into the R ventricle, taking away from the O2 being pumped into systemic circulation. **PULMONARY HYPERTENSION due to Inc volume leaving the R ventricle.
What is the only organ thats circulation is not in parallel with the heart? What type of circulation does it get? LIVER. **It gets SERIES flow instead of parallel flow b/c it gets BL after it has traveled through the stomach, pancreas, and intestines.
What is responsible for vasoconstriction? Alpha1 Adrenergic receptors
What is responsible for controlling vascular smooth muscle tone locally? Systemically? LOCAL: 1.Metabolic Factors (O2, Lactate). 2.Paracrine Factors (effects pre-capillary sphincters). SYSTEMIC: 1.SNS Hormones.
Explain the hearts resting O2 consumption compared to its % of cardiac output recieved Heart muscle has 100% O2 extraction from the BL. Therefore it is the MOST efficient but has NO RESERVE extraction capabilities during increased demand (ex: exercise).
What is the only way for the Heart to increase it's O2 consumption during situations like exercise? INCREASE BL FLOW. **If there is any coronary artery blockage, it will greatly decrease this and cause patholoy.
BL flow at rest to the Liver? It recieves 1/4 the CO from the heart (avg: 1.25L/min). Its O2 consumption at rest is slightly higher.
What two organs have poor O2 extraction and therefore consumption at rest? 1.Kidney. 2.Skin. **They recieve a higher % of CO with a lower O2 consumption.
Mean Arterial Pressure Diastolic + [1/3 X Pulse Pressure]. **Pulse pressure: Systolic - Diastolic.
What does Systolic BP represent? The PEAK arterial pressure generated from the ventricular contraction.
What does diastolic BP represent? The end diastolic/ minimum pressure generated while the ventricles relax.
How does the Arterial:Venous pressure difference change when a person stands up? IT STAYS THE SAME! the overall pressure in a particular area may Inc (Legs:+90) or Dec (Brain:-38) compared to the heart, but the A:V pressure difference doesn't change.
When looking at the the equation: Pt = Pin - Pout, what happens to vessels physiologically when Pout exceeds Pin? The vessel will collapse. **This can occur in cardiac arrest. CPR keeps Pin higher.
What is Vessel Compliance? Change in V/Change in Pt. It represents how stretchable the vessel is. **The change in volume in response to pressure decreases with age due to dec elasticity (EXERCISE CAN HELP!!)
What type of vessel has the highest compliance? VEINS!! much higher than arteries. **Change in 1mmHg can change volume 20-30%.
What is the major role of veins? STORE VOLUME. They hold up to 75% of the BL at a given time. **They can store more due to thin walls and dec elastic fibers.
What is responsible for maintaining diastolic BP of 80mmHg when the ventrical relaxes? Elastic Recoil. It is the energy stored in the arteries when they expand during systole. **Therefore low diastolic pressure can be pathologic.
Created by: WeeG