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vascular system

vascular system of the body

arteries high pressure blood vessels that deliver blood to organs.
arterioles small branches of arteries that distribute blood with in organs; controls the amount of blood that goes through an organ
capillaries the smallest blood vessel, the only vessels that allow blood to pick up and deliver nutrients/waste.
venules collect blood from capillaries and are found with in organs
veins drain blood from organs and carry it back towards the heart. rely on valves to keep blood from flowing backwards
tunica intima(interna) thin layer of epithelial tissue that comes in contact with blood in some blood vessels
tunica media the thicker middle layer of some blood vessels that is made up of smooth muscle (control of arteries) and connective tissues collagen for strength and elastinfor flexibility
tunica externa protective over coat of some blood vessels, made up largely of collagen and a little bit of elastin
vasoconstriction controlled by the sympathetic nervous system; smooth muscle in the tunica media contracts. in arterioles this is caused by local conditions. constriction of arteries raised BP if it is falling
vasodilation controlled by the sympathetic nervous system; arteries dilate due to an increase in BP. dilation of arterioles is based on current need of blood flow through an organ. again this is controlled by the smooth muscle in the tunica media
precapillary sphincter the muscle cell found at the entrance of a capillary. works with arterioles to distribute blood where needed in an orgen. it is responsible for fine control of blood distribution
capillaries composed of thin, simple squamous epithelium with gaps in between cells. the gaps allow for plasma and nutrients to leak out and large things like proteins and cells stay in.
venules and veins have zero blood pressure. and almost no muscle tone. they dont control anything and rely on respiratory and skeletal muscular pumps and valves to get blood back to the heart.
respiratory pump with every inhale,the thoracic cavity moves creating a negative pressure (vacuum) blood flows towards this
skeletal muscular pump skeletal muscle contracts putting pressure on veins creating movement. valves help keep the blood from flowing in the wrong direction
hepatic portal circulation veins that make a detour carrying blood from the intestines and the spleen to the liver.
Liver the liver turns glucose into fat and glycogen and it breaks down foreign things that were absorbed into the blood in the intestines.
hepatic portal vein Delivers bilirubin to the liver to be added to bile and carries blood from the intestines and spleen to the liver. it is a short vein
umbilical veins oxygen carrying veins that also supply nutrients to the fetus
placenta organ that contains capillaries from the mother and the fetus, it takes place of the babys lungs liver and kidneys in the womb.
umbilical arteries carry blood to the placenta from the fetus. transports waste
ductus venosus decreases amount of blood traveling through the liver
foramen ovale opening through the atrial septum, allows blood to bypass the lungs
ductus arteriosus passageway connecting aorta to pulmonary trunk so that less blood travels through pulmonary circulation
Blood pressure pressure in systemic arteries
pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic
mean arteriloe pressure average pressure of the arteries
hypertension elevated blood pressure
which force draws tissue back into the blood in our capillaries? Osmotic pressure
the bottom number in a normal BP reading would be closest to the pressure within the left ventricle at the start of ventricular systole.
The cardiac accelerator nerve is part of the sympathetic NS (fight or flight)it Opens NA+ channels more so it causes pacemaker cells the reach threshold more quickly and speeds up the heart rate.
The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic NS (rest and digest). it closes NA+ a little bit so that the heart rate slows down. Mostly effects the AV and SA nodes.
vasoconstriction and vasodilation in the arterioles is controlled mostly by Local conditions in the tissue
changing the diameter of blood vessels will change TPR
which layer of the blood vessels is needed to prevent coagulation of blood? the tunica intima or tunica interna
what will affect TPR? vasocontriction, vasodilation and hematocrit
how does the structure of a capillary allow it to perform its main function? Their thin, flat structure of simple squamous epithelium allows things to diffuse through it rapidly. there are also small gaps between the cells that allow plasma ans small nutrients in and out while keeping cells and proteins in the vessel
explain 3 reasons why the hepatic-portal circulation sends blood from the spleen and intestines through the liver 1)the liver processes fats, waste, and toxins in the blood 2)the liver turns glucose into fat or glycogen to be stored 3)the liver adds bilirubin to the bile
cardiac out put is equal to heart rate times stroke volume
name two functions of the lymphatic system 1) to carry tissue fluid back to the blood 2) filter waste out of the fluid before returning it to the blood
Created by: 688472874



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