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the heart

the heart structure

parietal pericardium the paricardial sac, it is the pouch around the heart
visceral pericardium also known as the epicardium, it is the outer surface or the heart.
epicardium the epithelial and connective tissue layer on the outside surface of the heart.
myocardium the very thick heart muscle layer.
endocardium the inner lining of the heart, the membrane that comes into contact with blood and lines all the valves and chambers.
Atria the receiving chambers of the heart, the top chambers of the heart.
auricles an extension of the atria, resemble ears.
ventricles the strong thick walled pumps of the heart, located at the bottom of the heart.
atrioventricular valves (AV) valves between the atria and the ventricles including the tricuspid and the mitral valves
tricuspid the 3 cusped valve on the right side of the heart between the atria and ventricle
mitral valve two cusped valve on the left side of the heart between the left ventricle and the left atria
chordae tendonae tough tissue connected to the cusps of valves
papillary muscles projections from the ventricle walls where the chordae tendonae are anchored
semilunar valves valves found at the entrances of arteries that receive blood from the ventricles
pulmonary valve valve found at the entrance of the pulmonary trunk
aortic valve valve found at the entrance of the aorta
superior vena cava part of systemic circulation that carries blood from above the heart to the right atria
inferior vena cava part of systemic circulation that carries blood from the body below the heart into the right atria
coronary sinus attached to the back surface of the heart it is the last vein in coronary circulation. it delivers deoxygenated blood the the right artrium
pulmonary veins veins coming from the lungs that carry oxygenated blood to the left atria
pulmonary trunk artery that receives deoxygenated blood directly from the right ventricle and branches into the pulmonary arteries
aorta the 1st and largest artery in coronary circulation and systemic circulation.
SinoAtrial node the "pacemaker" of the heart. it is the first part of the heart to reach threshold.
pacemaker cells self stimulating cells. they have sodium channels that are always open allowing sodium to diffuse across the membrane.
Atrioventricular node can be the pacemaker if the SA node isnt functioning. it cause a pause in the electrical impulse allowing atria to finish contracting before sending the impulse the ventricles
bundel of his carries electrical signal from av nnode to the septum into the bundle branches
bundle branches> perkinje fiber carry signal down the septum and up the side walls of the ventricles. the perkinje fibers stimulate the muscle cells
Systole contraction or when a chamber is pumping
diastole when a chamber is filling
Lubb and dupp lupp is the first heart sound (av valves closing) dupp is the 2nd heart sound when the semilunar valves are closing
parasympathetic control of HR the vagus nerves sends impulses that close sodium channles a little bit to slow HR. the entire conduction system slows but SA and AV nodes are effected most.
Sympathetic control of HR the cardiac accelerator nerve sends impulses that open sodium channels to speed up heart rate.
Created by: 688472874



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