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Exam 1 - part 2

Tissue Homeostasis

QuestionAnswer
What are the three processes of tissue homeostasis? 1. Cell proliferation by mitosis 2. Cell differentiation 3. Cell death
Define neoplasia. Uncontrolled cellular division and proliferation (i.e. tumor)
What are 3 possible causes of an imbalance in tissue homeostasis? 1. Tissue atrophy 2. Functional insufficiency 3. Neoplasia
What are the ordered stages of the cell cycle? G1, S, G2, M, G0
What is occurring during the G1 stage? The cell is stimulated to proliferate and is making components for DNA
Cyclin D partners with CDK4/6 and Cyclin E partners with CDK2 during which phase? G1
What is occuring during the S stage of the cell cycle? DNA synthesis
Cyclin A partners with CDK 2 during this phase? S phase
G2 Phase of the cell cycle is preparing the cell to undergo what? Mitosis
M phase represents what? The mitotic phase
What is the cell doing during the G0 phase? The cell is leaving the cycle
What are the 4 ordered stages of mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Teleophase
What does Cdk stand for and what do they do? Cyclin Dependent Kinases phosphorylate proteins.
CDKs must be complexed with these in order to be active? Cyclins
Cells receive (internal or external) signals that result in the increase of Cyclin (A, B, D, or E) External; D
What maintains control over cell cycle activity? Kinase levels
Kinase activity is determined by the synthesis and degradation of what? Cyclin partners
Name the 3 inhibitor of CDKs that bind cyclins of G1 and S phase. p21, p27, p57
Which 4 inhibitors inhibit CDK4/6 only? p15, p16, p18, p19
DNA damage is checked for at which cell cycle checkpoint? G1 Checkpoint
What does the S-phase checkpoint check for? Accuracy of DNA replication
If DNA is unreplicated and damaged, which checkpoint would catch this? G2-M checkpoint
Chromosomal alignment is checked at what checkpoint? Metaphase checkpoint
What is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer? P53
What 4 actions happen with P53 synthesis is induced? 1. p21 upregulated 2. CDC25 phosphatase inhibited 3. proapoptotic BAX induced 4. anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 inhibited
What is the overall goal of p53 synthesis after a damaged cell is discovered at the G1 checkpoint? To stop cell growth and division allowing time for DNA repair or apoptosis.
What occurs during the G2-M checkpoint that does not allow the cell to progress towards mitosis? Phosphorylation of CDK1
How does the p53 gene mutation correlate to cancer? If mutated, this allows damaged DNA to continue through mitosis and make more abnormal cells
What are the 4 possible outcomes for a cell? 1. Senescence 2. Terminally differentiated 3. Neoplastic transformation 4. Apoptosis
Cell death occurs in what 2 different ways? 1. Necrosis - cell murder 2. Apoptosis - cell suicide
Which form of cell death involves the orderly breakdown of a cell, shrinkage, and phagocytosis. Apoptosis engulfs apoptotic bodies formed through the orderly breakdown of a cell.
What occurs during necrosis? A cell enlarges and lysis occurs
The (intrinsic or extrinsic) pathway of apoptosis is initiated by mitochondria in response to stress. Intrinsic pathway
What are responsible for orderly dismantling of a cell? Caspases
IAP stands for? Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins
Bcl-2 proteins (inhibits or promotes) apoptosis? Inhibits
BAX dimers (inhibit or promote) apoptosis? Promote
What does the R point represent in the cell cycle? R defines a point in the cell cycle after which the cell no longer depends on extracellular signals but is committed to completing that cell cycle independent of further mitogenic stimuli.
What is the role of apoptosis in the hematopoietic system? 1. Selection of appropriate T/B cells 2. Cytotoxic function of T cells and NK cells 3. Regulate the # of mature cells 4. Platelet production 5. Final RBC maturation
What does CAK do? CAK stands for Cdk Activating Kinase and activates phosphorylation of all the kinases in the cell cycle.
Created by: AshleySchutz