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Exam 1 - part 1

Intro to Hematology

QuestionAnswer
Define hematology. The study of blood and blood forming organs.
Where are five places in the body that blood is formed? 1. Bone Marrow 2. Spleen 3. Liver 4. Lymph Nodes 5. Thymus
Name the 4 original body humors. Blood, Phlem, Black Bile, and Yellow Bile.
Cellular elements make up what percent of blood? 45%
Cellular elements of blood include what 3 classes? 1. Erythrocytes 2. Leukocytes 3. Platelets
Plasma makes up what percent of the blood? 55%
What role does water play in plasma? Transport medium and hydration of tissues
The 9% of plasma that is not water is composed of what? Proteins, electrolytes,carbohydrates, lipids, hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and vitamins.
What is the percentage for each subclass of cellular elements? Erythrocytes = 44% Leukocytes = <1% Platelets = <1%
What is the primary role of a RBC? Transport of O2 and CO2.
What is the function of a platelet? To maintain integrity of a red blood cell and begin coagulation processes.
Name 5 functions of blood. 1. Transport nutrients to tissues 2. Remove metabolic end products 3. Gas Exchange 4. Natural defense mechanisms 5. Maintain integrity of the circulatory system
The cell membrane regulates what? Entry and Exit to the cell
What is the cell membrane made from? Proteins and lipids form a phospholipid bilayer.
2 types of chromatin can be found in the? Nuclues
Define heterochromatin? Tightly coiled chromosomes that are inactive.
What is Euchromatin? This refers to the uncoiled or diffused chromosomes that have an active role in the storage and transmitting of genetic information and directing of cellular activies.
The nucleolus contains what? RNA
Nucleoli are present in cells engaged in what? Protein synthesis
The (inner or outer) membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER? Outer
The cytoplasm represents which portion of a cell? The fluid portion (cytosol)
This organelle is responsible for post-translational modification of proteins as well as the transport of membrane bound secretory proteins. Golgi Apparatus
Rough ER is responsible for the synthesis and storage of what? Proteins
Smooth ER is responsible for the synthesis and storage of what? Lipids
This is the site of energy production in a cell. Mitochondria
These membrane bound vesicles are responsible for the dissolving of waste. Lysosomes
What is Proteomics? The study of composition, structure, and functional interaction of cellular proteins.
Which segment of a necleotide sequence DOES NOT code for protein? Introns
What is pre-mRNa? This is the copy of an entire sequence of a gene including introns and exons.
Mature mRNA includes only (introns or exons)? Exons - this makes mature mRNA shorter
UTRs stand for? Untranslated Regions
Where are UTRs located? At the 5' and 3' ends of mature mRNA
What are the 2 roles of a UTR? UTRs influence the stability of mRNA and efficiency of translation of a protein.
The variations of genetic sequence of a gene in different individuals is known as a _________? Polymorphism
The is the alteration in a sequence of a gene that results in disease or abnormal function. Mutation
SNP stands for what? And what is it? Single nucleotide polymorphism is a region of DNA that differs in a single DNA nucleotide.
How do promoter regions of genes control gene expression? They bind transcription factors to regulate expression.
True or False? Promoter regions are transcribed during the process of transcription? False - they are not transcribed but used to regulate.
Variation in a genetic sequence with >1% frequency that does not cause disease is called? Polymorphism
Gene expression is controled by promoter regions as well as these from outside the cell? Signals
Created by: AshleySchutz