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The Rise of Realism

Social and Political Milestones. (3) -The Civil War- 1861-1865 -The end of slavery -Westward expansion
The End of Idealism. war? greatest novel from the war, by whoom? -cut deep into the hearts of Americans, and the idealism of Romanticism was abandoned -little lit bc major writers of the time witnessed the war firsthand -The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, was not written until 6 years after the war
Elements of Realism - 6 A. rejection of idealized, larger-than-life hero of Romantic literature B. detailed depiction of ordinary characters and realistic events C. emphasis on characters from cities and lower classes D. avoidance of the exotic, sensational, and overly drama
6 famous realsit writers? -Sarah Orne Jewett -Kate Chopin -Harriet Beecher Stowe -Bret Harte -Charles W. Chestnutt -Mark Twain
subgenre of realism? -Naturalism: people believed universe was greater than them, and couldn't overcome it
naturalist elements? 5
3 famous american naturalists? -Stephen Crane -Henry James -Jack London
3 social influences? -Reformers and muckraking journalists expose abuses in industries such as mining and meatpacking -large numbers of immigrants from Europe settle in American cities -In 1908, Henry Ford introduces the Model T,
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglas. purpose and method(3) show the event that restored his dignity as a man: gave him courage1. Narration- straight forwardly told the story 2. Persuasion- persuasive because he used emotional appeal3. Description- went into detail about the beating and his trip to his master
Fred. Douglas. 3 figures of speech? -simile: look like a man who barely escaped wild animals(Mr. Covey being the animals) -metaphor 1: the fight gave him the courage to escape -metaphor 2: it was a glorious resurrection from the tomb of slavery to the heaven of freedom
fred. douglas. characters? -Douglass: courageous, hardworking, brave -Thomas: greedy, weak -Covey: savage, vicious
fred. douglas. writing style and theme and superstition? style: objective because he told the facts;dignity/injustice: all people should be treated with dignity and respect no matter the color of their skin -superstition: if you put this particular root in your right pocket, it will keep you from getting beate
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. author? -by: Harriet A. Jacobs
..Slave girl. purpose, method, and conflict? Purpose: reveal the trials that slave families suffered -Method: she was very melodramatic; subjective -external: being a slave and running away and separated from her children -internal: wanting to go see her children in jail, but knew she couldn't
...slave girl. characterization? -Jacobs/Linda Brent; courageous, strong, leader -Dr. Flint/Norcome; mean, heartless, greedy
My Bondage and My Freedom. author? purpose? -by: Frederick Douglass Purpose -to show dehumanizing effects of slavery -methods: subjective; talked about the sad songs and what it was like to be a slave -the silent slave scared the master because they were plotting to run away or running
My bondage and my freedom. silent Slave (meaning)? Pathos? Silent Slave -2 meanings: plotting some evil or running away -since they couldnt talk amongst themselves, they used songs in order to talk in code Pathos -meant suffering in Greek -emotional effect: the songs gave them a way to express their emotio
Spirituals: Go down moses; moses? stanza 4? Moses -many people: thought it was Asbury who helped slaves escape -Harriet Tubman: many people referred to her as Moses;; Stanza 4 -meaning: if they werent let go, they would revolt
Go down moses; symbolism? (4) -Israel: God's chosen people; stood for the slaves -Egypt: where they were held captive; stood for the south -Pharaoh: the owner: stood for the slaveowners -Moses: the saving person; stood for Asbury or Harriet Tubman
Spiritual. follw th edrinking ground. symbolism? code song? imagery? Symbol-the Big Dipper;;;CS -day/time of year for escape: at dawn, in the spring, a person would wait for someone to pick them up and hide them -old man: it was less threatening so slave owners wouldnt know what they meant -gourd: less threatening word
Spiritual: swing low sweet chariot. purpose? symbolism? Symbolism -chariot: the Underground Railroad -home: freedom(maybe the North) Purpose -encouragement: the time is coming when they will be given a chance to escape
The Most Remarkable Woman of this Age by Commonwealth and Freeman's Record. purpose? motto? admiration for Tubman"I can't die but once."meaning: she already died once when her husband left her so it wasn't a big deal to risk her life ;U=Tubman seems to have held this belief,belief was: the good of the many overcomes the good of the individual
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce. Descrption of Bierce? attittude, war, journalism, ficiton writer? very bitter,War: one of the few writers who experienced the war first hand;muckraking: person who wanted to expose every bad thing, didn't care who he hurt;this story is the only good one, all the others were rejected because of his pessimistic attitude
owl creek. POV, genre, flashback? -purpose: to show that not everything turns out the way it should -gothic: dark, and gets into the human mind -used in part 2 -2 reasons: to show why he is being executed, and sets up surprise ending
owl creek. iimagery, foreshadowing, final sentence? -used when he falls in water -suggests 2 things: death itself or the sensation of being hanged and his life flashing before his eyesbefore you die, senses are very sharp; this shows that he was about to die;final sentence:almost sarcastic,
a mystery of heorism. author? Stephen crane
Herosim. Crane? -naturalist -wrote Red Badge of Courage and used Impressionism: the great novel of the civil war, 28died of tuberculosis -war stories po: wasn't from officer's view, it was from the common soldiers view
heroism. imagery? 4 ex of irony? compared to machines or animals: to show the precision of the military;spilled water:war's going on all around him and he's worried about water ,officer's were having a philosophical argument in the middle of a battle,willing to risk his life for water
herosim, personification? (3) -3 examples: •bullets sounded like vulgar insults being screamed at a young woman •called the bullets angel •the water was mocking him when it was coming out slow
herosim. naturalistic POV. 4 ex. •water seeped into the ground; nature doesn't care •the water took its time getting into the canteen •man may control the machines of war, but no one wins because war kills •man is not ultimately in control because the bullets took their life
heroism. symbolism? 2 meanings? -destruction of gray house has 2 meanings: •destruction of family and everyday life •the gray symbolized destruction of south bc their uniforms were gray
heroism. purpose? -challenge the traditionally held views of heroism -traditional view: people who risk their lives for man -realist/naturalistic view: even amiss stupidity, people can be heroes, Collins gave dying soldier some water
3 types of irony? Irony: (verbal- (something said), situational- (expected happens) and dramatic- (audience knows something the character doesn't))
War is kind. author? naturalistic view? irony method? Stephen Crane;; Bitterness: war has caused the death of thousands War: compares it to a Battle God - reins over a kingdom of corpuses. Its death; Verbal- Crane's method trough words Method- Through Sarcasm
War is kind. tone? Reverence and prayer: Praying to the battle god. Purpose: Show that the battle god is not like our God; you pray to the battle god and all it will bring you is death. Sarcasm again; wants them to understand how silly they're being
War is kind. nautralism and realism shown how? Realism in the Poem: - doesn't sugar coat anything; talks about the death and destruction war can bring Naturalism in the Poem: - As long as humans are in control, it is natural for us to be at war with each other
Lit in the Civil war? Bc the war was so brutal, ppl did not want to write the truth, so much of the lit ended up being letters, diaries, and speeches.
Letter to his son. author? robert e lee
letter to his son. unity? rights of states? Unity: He believed this was important; The country needed to stay together. Rights of the States: Southern states rights were violated, but believed there was a better way to solve the problem than war.
letter to his son. dilemma? Dilemma Divided loyalties to Union and to his state. His ultimate choice: even though heh doesn't want to secede, he would agree with his state and go with whatever it did.
letter to sarah ballou. author? Major Sullivan Ballou
letter to srah .... 2 symbols? dilemma? Symbols: 2 Chains and Cables: Cables bound him to his family and unbreakable by God; Chains binds him to the battlefield Great Wind: Pulls him to battlefield Dilemma Fight or stay with is family: chose to fight
Gettysburg address. wuthor? date? purpose? lincoln. The Gettysburg Address- Lincoln November 19, 1863 Purpose: dedicating a cemetery on the bloodiest battlefield in the whole war. celebrating freedom and democracy.
Gettysburg. tone and 2 important points? Formal and biblical Purpose: wanted them to know how serious this was.;;; Reminded ppl of principles the nation was founded on: Defined Democracy: govt. of the ppl, by the ppl, for the ppl
first book written after the civil war? how many years afterwards? The red badge of courage was the first book written after the civil war. 6 years after
a diary from dixie. author? description? serves as? A Diary from Dixie - Mary Chestnut Wife of James Chestnut: aide to the president of confederacy former governor of south carolina Diary serves as: what most ppl were thinking. and account them realizing they stood no chance at winning against the nort
Diary from Dixie. allusion? reason for fighting? tone? Bible = David and Absolam - mourn the death of the south but have to get up and keep going.;;fighting for states rights. Sadness:All they have left to fight are boys too young, or men too old Acceptance: have to keep going and not give up
men at war: an interview with shelby foote. author? Ken Burns
men at war. anecote? def and ex? Definition - short humorous story to prove a point example - A lone solider didn't know why he was fighting, he just knew the northerns invaded his land and he was fighting them. The average solider didn't know why he was fighting.
men at war. reason for fighting?vil wawr so important? Average confederate: didn't know Lincoln and north: unify nation and end slavery. In truth they were fighting for states rights Civil War so Important: Defined America - that we have territory and we need to pull back together and defend it.
i will fight no more forever. author? cheif joseph.
I will fight no more forever. oratory and tone? Literature - very important form of communication. .only thing we have left of certain time periods American Indian - the MOST important form. had the power to control ppl and events Sad and mournful bc the ppl were scattered and dying.
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. auhtor? mark twawin
Twain's real name? nickkname origin? Samuel Langhorne Clemens: Mark Twain's real name. He adopted the new name while he was working on the Mississippi river. Nickname that they called him and yelled out if the water was too low for the steamboat to continue
twain; vernacular def?bitter old man? (vernacular means in realist time period when they portrayed someone; upper and lower classes) Twain was a master of using this; became a bitter old man: HIs kids and wife were taken away from him;
frog. Frame, picture, narrator? story within a story; starts out with a narrator looking for Smiley at a mining camp Picture: Meets wheeler and he tells him of Smiley and his frog Narrator: 1st - unnamed telling of looking for Smiley 2nd - Wheeler telling story of frog
Frog. Irony. 5 ex. Simon says itslong and boring, actually short and funny;Delivers story with a straight face;Story of andrew jackson losing a bet with a dog with no hind legs;Hustler(smiley)gets hustled;We know its beenweighed down with quail shot, but smiley doesn't know
frog. hyperbole an docmic comparison (2 each) H= 1. Smiley would follow a bug to MX if it would help him win a bet 2. Andrew jackson could hold onto a dogs hind legs for a year; CC= 1. Webster(frog) to fly into to air he looked like a donut flying in the air2.The frog landed on all 4 feet like a cat
og. personification and understament? Personification Frog: You would never know it could jump so high bc it was modest Understatement Smiley Talked down the frog to the stranger to make him seem normal so he could win the bet.
The lowest animal. author? satire? Twain; We said one thing, and did another. and murdered;Anaconda: He did an experiment and put 5 or 7 buffalo and the snake only ate one; experiment proved that man was wasteful ."man has made a graveyard of the globe":
The lowest animal. purpose? method? parralellism? Purpose: Show man as wasteful, cruel, and greedy get humans to treat each other more humanely Method Satire: exaggeration; sarcasm; loaded words; He really didn't do these experiments Parallelism Man is...Man is... : Proves a point about the man
to build a fire. author? Jack London
Jack London. best known for? came to know 2 things through adventures? death? Traveled a lotadventure/ naturalistic stories 2 things from adventures: 1. Life is a struggle and only the strong will survive 2. Civilized beings will either destroyed or recreated by savage environments like the Yukon Death: He ODed on pain meds;
Fire. 4 foreshadowing? Old-timer telling him to not go on When he broke through the ice into the water When he spit it turned into ice b4 hit ground Dog knowing something wasn't right and running away from him.
Fire. no imagination? characterization? Knows facts but: Doesn't understand the truth of how cold that really is. He ignore all the warnings he was given The man: stubborn, naive, foolish, arrogant
Fire. tone? irony/allusion? Impersonal and detached: To emphasize the naturalist viewpoint Irony/Allusion: Thought he could run all the way to camp; Greek god Hermes; but in truth he wasn't being graceful like the god.
a paair of silk stockings. authorr? kate chopin.
Chopin's life? work, stories, theme? Work in lifetime: not much success; women didn't have any rights Short stories: reflected the way she had to depend on hubby for everything Dominant Theme: french creoles (louisiana); women repressed and needed some freedom
Stockings. Character/motivation? Mrs. Sommers - earned $15; a lot for this time! Why did she suddenly indulge herself? She had the money and she was excited about it.
stockings. symbols...2 She is described as being "very hungary": Hungry for not having to always cut corners and be careful with money Stocking glided "serpent like" through her fingers: tempted by them and missing these luxuries
stoockings. theme? what was she tryign to say? Women of that time had no income of own, so she faced with a choice, spend in self or family. What Chopin was trying to say: Women should be able to have jobs and earn money to spend it.
a wagner matinee. author> life story? willa cather. Wrote mostly about women in the west (pioneers) Most of her life as a journalist; fiction stories were written in later part of her life Pulitzer Prize: Won in 1922 for writing "One of Ours"; This was the highest literary honor.
matinee. 2 settings? falshback? Nebraska: Gave up everything to marry and go be a pioneer wife here Boston: theater, opera, music Flashback: To show: Set up aunt Georgina; shows why she would enjoy the matinee so much later on in the story
matinee. theme, symbol, analogy, riing cycle? accept her life in the frontier.;Sleepy, somnambulant(sleep walking): w/o her passion - music - through life;Stone Ramses: Out of place;detached;Musical score showed: Had a passion for music, left if, briefly saw it, and had to lose it again to gain
Richard coy. author? Richard Cory - Edwin Arlington Robinson
Robinson. started writing? 3 time winer? style? voew of humanity? 11;Pulitzer's prize' Style: Very traditional (rhyme, rhythm, ironic); ironic bc he killed himself, but the had everything View of humanity: Realist; man was flawed; told as it was; portray small town life in reality; irony and surprises
Coy. theme? connotation/denotation? Theme: Money isn't everything; doesn't give you the connections with pl you need Message: Same! Denotation/Connotation: D= definition C= words that describe a word used connotations = crown and imperial - wanted to think of him as a king
Coy. elements and realist POV? Irony: rich and admired, but was not happy and killed himself Idioms: made pulses flutter - make ppl look at him Rhyme Scheme: ABAB Realist View: Ending: ,suicide is a real life thing.
miniver cheevy. about? theme/ author? Miniver Cheevy - Edwin Arlington Robinson - alcoholic who couldn't separate fantasy from reality Theme/message: dont live in the past, it cant be changed
Cheevy. allusions? shows? Thebes: ancient greek city where many myths come from Camelot: fictional city of King Arthur Priam: King destroyed by the greeks in the Iliad and odyssey ;; none really exist; shows his longing for things that don't exist
Cheevy. Connotation, irony, tone, rhyme? Connotation: child = foolishness and immaturity Irony: mid life crisis and to relive the glory days --- but his arent even his own, theyre from 1000s of years ago Tone: Very detached, tells the facts. Rhyme scheme: ABAB
Cheevy. Coughing?ld indicate? purpose? Could indicate: Tuberculosis Purpose: Drinking and smoking speed up the death process; making himself die faster.
The story of an hour. author? Chopin
Hour. realistic view (2 points)? 2 Examples: She dies, realistic action Shows the social issues of wanting freedom at that time period. How does Mrs. Mallard really feel about her husband? Doesn't hate him; but accepts his death and excited about the freedom
hour. irony, message, foreshadowing? Irony: protecting from his death, but its him living that kills her says that joy killed her, but actually her disappointment Message: Women need independence Foreshadowing: When looking out the window, the blue sky shows her being happy and free
Created by: Ktfic



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