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Organizational Beh.

QuestionAnswer
Manager An individual who achieves goals through other people.
Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Technical Skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.
Human Skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.
Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
Systematic Study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence.
Evidence-Based Management (EBM) The basing of managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence.
Intuition A gut feeling not necessarily supported by research.
Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
Social Psychology An area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
Sociology The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture.
Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Contingency Variables Situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
Workforce Diversity The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
Positive Organizational Scholarship An area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential.
Ethical Dilemmas and Ethical Choices Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct.
Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real world phenomenon.
Dependent Variable A response that is affected by an independent variable.
Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency.
Effectiveness Achievement of goals.
Efficiency. The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it.
Absenteeism The failure to report to work
Turnover Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from and organization.
Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Independent Variable The presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable.
Surface-Level Diversity Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.
Deep-level Diversity Differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.
Discrimination Noting of a difference between things; other we refer to unfair discrimination, which means making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group.
Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics--such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure--that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.
Ability An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
Intellectual Abilities The capacity to do mental activities--thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
General Mental Ability (GMA) An overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions.
Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
Diversity Management The process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of the sensitive to the needs and differences of others.
Attitudes Evaluative statements of judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job Involvement The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self worth.
Psychological Empowerment Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work.
Organizational Commitment The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
Affective Commitment An emotional attachment to an organization and a belief in its values.
Continuance Commitment The perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared with leaving it.
Normative Commitment An obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons.
Perceived Organizational Support The degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
Employee Engagement An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does.
Core Self-Evaulations Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.
Exit Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
Voice Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
Loyalty Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
Neglect Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen.
Affect A broad range of feelings that people experience.
Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.
Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Positive Affect A mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end.
Negative Affect A mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end.
Positivity Offset The tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on.)
Affect intensity Individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions.
Illusory Correlation The tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no correlation.
Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.
Emotional Dissonance Inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project.
Felt Emotion An individual's actual emotions.
Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
Surface Acting Hiding one's inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.
Deep Acting Trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules.
Affective Events Theory A model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions of the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors.
Emotional Intelligence The ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information.
Emotional Contagion The process by which peoples' emotions are caused by the emotions of others.
Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
Heredity Factors determined at conception; one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.
Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
Big Five Model A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions.
Extraversion A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Agreeableness A personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Emotional Stability A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Openness to Experience A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.
Core Self-Evaluation The degree to which an individual like or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment.
Machiavellianism The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
Narcissism The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.
Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
Type A Personality Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things and people.
Proactive Personality People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.
Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity.
Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values.
Personality-Job Fit Theory A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
Power Distance A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
Individualism A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
Collectivism A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
Masculinity A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.
Femininity A national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as equals of men in all aspects of the society.
Uncertainty Avoidance A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.
Long Term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence.
Short Term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations.
Created by: ochsn024
 

 



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