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Intro to Ortho HP

H & P II-Spring

Imagining the anatomy involved and the forces that acted on the anatomy to cause the injury Mechanism of injury
Too tired to get out of bed generalized weakness
Too tired to walk the stairs muscle weakness
What patterns should we look for with pain sxs patterns between stiffness and swelling may be arthritis
What six sxs should we ask our pt about pain weakness, swelling, deformity, stiffiness, loss of fxn, and cracking/popping
How can we test radiation with a traumatic injury ask associated paresthesia, weakness, loss of bowel or bladder
What must we ask our pt about their pain to get an idea of severity Establish a Functional baseline, what is nl for them
Basic principles of orthopedic PE Inspection, Palpation, ROM, Muscle testin, Motor/Sensory evaluation, Special tests
An easy way to test a patient’s nl orthopedic fxn test their other extremeity
What thinkgs are we looking for during inspection symmetry, deformity, inflammation/infection sigsn, edema, ecchymosis, muscular wasting, truma
What are we palpating for during an Ortho exam Tenderness, temp, effusion, crepitus, bones, muscle tone/spasms, induration, soft tissue masses
What are we checking for Distal CMS Circulation, Motion, Sensation
What scale is muscle tone measured on? Reflexes? M: 1-5 R: 0-4 0: none, 4: Hyperactive w/ clonus
Serious of involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations clonus
Fracture perpendicular to long axis of bone transverse
Fracture diagonal to long axis of the bone oblique
What actions should we avoid w/ oblique and spiral fractures any axial force, causes sliding
Fracture caused by a twisting injury spiral
Fracture through only one cortex Greenstick
Fracture w/ buckling of the cortex Torus
Fracture Caused by a tendon or ligament pulling a piece of bone off @ its origin/insertion Avulsion (shearing away the bone,)
Fracture cased by a chronic injury stress
Fracture caused by a crushing force comminuted, (many pieces) usually associated with other types of fractures
Bone is exposed through skin, or with a cut/gash Open fracture
What needs to be tested with an impacted fracture Bone densities
Salter-Harris Classifications of fractures I-V
S-H I fracture Through the physis
S-H II Fracture Though physis with extension to metaphysis
S-H V Fracture Crush injury to the physis (Sometimes hard to distinguish b/w I
S-H III Fracture Through physis w/ extension to epiphysis
S-H IV Fracture Through metaphysis, pysis, and epiphysis
Created by: becker15