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Ch 1 Patho Terms

Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
anaerobic Metabolism occurring in the absence of oxygen within a cell leading to decresead pH and metabolic impairment.
apoptosis referring to programmed cell death, a normal occurrence--cells self-destruct, appearing to digest themselves enzymatically, and then disintegrate into fragments
homeostasis the relatively constant, stable maintained within the body in regards to bp, temperature, and fluid balance
Prophylaxis (prevention) primary focus in healthcare to identify causes of disease and methods of preventing spread of disease
diagnosis identification of disease/illness
Info needed to establish a diagnosis ~Predisposing factors 'risk factors"; Etiology (cause of disease); pathogenesis - course of disease in the body; Clinical manifestations - local or systemic signs; Diagnostic tests & their interpretation
microscopic cellular level changes due to disease
biopsy excision of small amounts of living tissue for examination to determine cause and or state of disease
autopsy surgical examination of body after death to analyze fluids and note the effect of a disease or identify cause of death
Etiology Direct cause of a disease
Predisposing factors 'risk" factors contributing to the promotion of the disease
Pathogenesis Course (development) of the disease in the body
Onset may be actue, sudden, or obvious or insidious
acute short-term illness that develops quickly with marked signs
chronic pathologic changes occur slowly and sometimes without signs
latent "silent" a.k.a Incubation period - time between exposure to microorganism and the onset of signs or symptoms
idiopathic cause of disease is unknown
iatrogenic disease caused my a medical error
subclinical exists in some conditions in which pathological changes occur but no clinical signs are evident (often communicable during incubation period)
prodormal comprises the time in the early development of the disease when one is aware of changes in the body but signs are nonspecific - lab tests are neg. and diagnosis is difficult at this stage
Manifestations clinical evidence or effects and signs and symptoms of the disease. May be localized or systemic.
Local manifestations at the site of the problem
Systemic manifestations are general involving entire body systems
Signs (Objective) manifestations that are observed by the healthcare professional or are able to be measured
Symptoms (Subjective) patient's feelings such as pain or nausea
Lesion specific local change in a tissue - may be microscopic or visible
Syndrome collection of s&s - often affecting more than one organ or system; usu occuring together in response to a condition
Diagnostic tests laboratory tests
Remissions may mark the course of progress of the disease - manifestations of the disease subsides
Exacerbations manifestations of the disease worsen
precipitating factor condition that triggers an acute episode - differs from a predisposing factor - event during the course of the disease that causes an exacerbation
Complications secondary or additional problem arising after disease begins
Therapy therapeutic interventions and treatment measures used to promote recovery or slow progression of the disease
Sequelae Potential unwanted outcomes of the primary condition
Convalescense period of recovery where the body returns to a normal healthy state
Prognosis probability or liklihood for recovery
Morbidity (Statistical) indicates disease rates within a group
Mortality (Statistical) indicate the relative number of deaths resulting from a particular disease
Epidemiology the science of tracking the pattern or occurance of disease.
Epidemics a mass occurrence of a disease in a specific area
Pandemic worldwide high occurrence of a disease
Incidence # of NEW cases within a population
Prevalence Total cases within a population
Communicable disease usu infectious and spread from person to person
Atrophy decrease in the size of cells - reduced tissue mass -reduced use of tissue -insufficient nutrition or blood supply -decreased neurological or hormonal stimulation -age
Hypertrophy increase in cell size resulting in enlarged tissue mass -overworking -escessive nutrition -excessive hormonal stimulation -cardic wall hypertrophy or increased skeletal muscle mass
Hyperplasia increase in CELL NUMBER -either compensatory or pathological -NOT A CANCER but risk of cancer may increase
Metaplasia replacement of one cell type with another e.g. adaptive mechanism providing more resistant tissue - stratified squamous replaces ciliated columnar cells in respiratory tracts of smokers
Dysplasia tissue cells abnormally varying in size and shape w/ large nuclei, fast mitosis. Confined to one place and are mature tissue cells -results from chronic irritation or infection -DEFINITE PRE-CANCEROUS -ATYPICAL CELLS
Anaplasia immature cells - appear embryonic in that they are undifferentiated --CHARACTERISTIC OF CANCER AND THE BASIS FOR GRADING AGGRESSIVENES OF A TUMOR
Neoplasm "new growth"; a tumor that can be classified as benign or malignant
Benign usu considered less serious bc they do not spread and are not life-threatening unless found in locations like brain, etc.
Malignant "Cancer"
Ischemia deficit of oxygen in the cells due to repiratory or circulatory problems
Hypoxia reduced oxygen in tissue
exogenous chemicals from the environment that may damage cells by altering cell membrane permeability or producing other reactive chemicals known as free radicals - which continue to damage cell components
endogenous chemicals inside the body that may damage cells
Morphologic structural changes occurring in the nucleus and the cell
lysis cell death
lysosomal enzymes after cell lysis, these destructive enzymes are released into the tissue causing inflammation, redness, pain and damage to nearby cells and reduced fx - can diffuse into the blood
Necrosis death of a part of a tissue (group of cells)
Liquefaction necrosis process by which dead cells liquify due to certain enzymes
Coagulative necrosis occurs when cell proteins are altered or denatured and the cells retain some form for a time after death
Fat necrosis occurs when fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids in the presence of infections of certain enzymes - these compunds may increase inflammation
Caseous necrosis a form of coagulation in which a thick, yellowish substance forms - eg. TB
Infarction term applied to an area of dead cells resulting from a lack of O2
Gangrene an area of necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria. Can be described as wet or dry. Frequently amputation of tissue is required to prevent spread of the infection.
CH 1 Summary Disease is defined as a deviation from the individual's normal state of physical, mental, and social well-being, leading to a loss of homeostasis in the body. Pathaphysiology is the study of the structural and fx changes related to the disease process.
Effects of a specific disease depend on the organ or tissue affected, and the cause of the disease; for ex, an infection or malignant tumor Disease prevention campaigns or screening programs for early diagnosis are based on factors such as causes, predisposing factors, and incidence of specific disease.
Health prof need to be aware of the new info, diagnostic tests, and therapies that are constantly emerging. The allocation of resources for health care and the ethical issues related to new technologies are concerns. Discussion of the disease process incl such topics as occurrence, diagnosis, or the id of a disease; eitology; pathologic changes in tissues and organs; and prognosis.
Cell and tissue changes such as atrophy and hypertrophy are frequently linked to changes in demand or use of the tissue. Metaplasia occurs as an adaptive change; dysplasis and anaplasia are connected to malignant changes. Cell damage for any reason may be reversible , causing temp loss of fx. Severe damage causes necrosis and loss of fx.
Causes of cell damage include ischemia, toxic subs, pH changes, or microorganism invasion.
Created by: JaeLaw23