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PATHOPHYS

QuestionAnswer
Types of Healing Resolution, Regeneration, Replacement
Four methods of acquiring immunity Natural active, artificial active, natural passive, artificial passive
systemic lupus erythematosus
Lymphocytes Primary cell in the immune response. T cells, B cells and Natural Killer cells
Coomb's test Rh blood type
ELISA HIV Screening
HLA Typing Tissue matching
Types of Rejection Hyperacute (immediate), Acute (within weeks) Chronic (within years)
SLE
Histoplasma fungus causing a lung infection that may become disseminated through the body; it is transmitted by inhaling contaminated dust or soil particles
Pneumocystis carinii has characteristics of both fungi and protozoa; causes pneumonia
Trichomonas vaginalis sexually transmitted infection that attaches to the mucous membranes and causes inflammation
Plasmodium vivax transmitted by mosquitoes; microbes are found in the red blood cells causing them to enlarge and rupture and release new microbes and toxins into the blood, causing acute illness
Entamoebe hystolytica spread by the oral-fecal route; parasite in the large intestine that causes amebic dysentery, a severe form of diarrhea, and possible liver abscesses
Carcinoma Epithelial coverings and linings are derived from the embryonic layers known as ectoderm and endoderm
Sarcoma Tissues lying between the coverings and linings of the body are derived from the embryonic layer called the mesoderm
Anaplasia As cells become more malignant, they lose the functional specializations that come with differentiation from more primitive forms
Staging T-size, N-associated lymph node regions, M-metastases
Grading
chlorambucil (Leukeran), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), ifosfamide (Ifex), melphalan (Alkeran) Alkylating agents
methotrexage (Amethopterin), mercaptopurine (Purethanol), fluoracil (Cytosar-U, Ara-C), gemtcitabine (Gemzar) Antimetabolites
testolactone (Teslac), methyltestosterone (Android, Testred) Androgens, useful in treating premenopausal females with breast caancer
bicalutamied (Casodex), flutamide (Eulexin) Antiandrogens, used in prostate cancer
megestrol (Megace) Estrogens, useful in treating prostate cancer and breast cancer in post-menapausal women
tamoxifen (Nolvadex) Antiestrogen used in tx of postmenopausal females with breast cancer
bleomycin (Blenoxan), doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex, Doxil), mitomycin (Mutamycin) Antitumor antibiotics
Interferon (Roferon-A, Intron A, Alferon N, Rebetron) mediator of the immune system that is used in the treatment of malignancies
Hageman Factor (Factor XII) activated when the endothelium has been damaged and the molecule is exposed to tissues lying under the endothelial lining of vessels
Coagulation Tests PTT (partial thromboplastin time, (PT) prothrombin time, thrombin time (TT), fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP), fibrinogen concentration, bleeding time, and platelet aggregation
Thrombocytopenia Abnormally low platelet concentrations
von Willebrand’s Disease genetic absence of von Willebrand factor
Aplastic Anemia bone marrow is depressed and, as a result, all marrow-produced elements (RBCs, platelets, WBCs) are deficient
Deficiency Anemia Iron, B12, Folic Acid
Hemolytic Anemia Sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)
Polycythemia increased concentration of RBC's
Leukopenia low wbc count
Leukocytosis high wbc count
Leukemia ALL, AML, CLL, CML
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and symptoms include an enlarged lymph node followed by splenomegaly and other enlarged nodes, general signs of cancer (weight loss, anemia, low-grade fever and night sweats, and fatigue), pruritis, and recurrent infection.
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Multiple node involvement scattered throughout the body More difficult to treat than Hodgkin's lymphoma
Antihypertensive Therapy Diuretics reduce fluid volume, beta blockers decrease cardiac output, ACE blockers reduce vasoconstriction, calcium channel blockers decrease contraction force of vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
Medial calcific sclerosis rare arterial disease in which there is focal (localized) calcification of the arterial media without clinical symptoms
Left-sided heart failure Renal and cerebral hypoxia; angiotensin causes generalized vasoconstricion and increased cardiac workload, aldosterone increases fluid reabsorption and increased circulatory volume
Right-sided heart failure hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and azotemia
Ventricular Septal Defect opening in the interventricular septum
Valvular defect stenosis or incompetence
Tetralogy of Fallot 1) pulmonary valve stenosis, 2) ventricular septal defect, 3) dextroposition of the aorta, and 4) right ventricular hypertrophy
Legionnaire's disease Legionella pneumophila
Primary atypical pneumonia often viral or mycoplasma and involves interstitial inflammation
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia occurs as an opportunistic and often fatal infection in patients with AIDS and also causes pneumonia in premature infants; considered a fungus
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome acute respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV (SARS-associated coronavirus
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs
Histoplasmosis fungal infection common in the midwestern U.S. where the fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, and its spores can be inhaled on dust particles
Cystic Fibrosis meconium ileus, salty skin, malabsorption, chronic cough, failure to thrive
Emphysema Emphysema is caused by smoking or a genetic factor in non-smokers which causes destruction of alveolar walls, loss of elasticity, impaired expiration, barrel chest, and hyperinflation.
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis results from constant irritation to the bronchi from smoking or exposure to industrial pollution. Inflammation and obstruction, repeated infections, and chronic coughing characterize bronchitis
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is typically a secondary problem that develops in patients with conditions such as cystic fibrosis or COPD. This condition is an irreversible abnormal dilation or widening, primarily of the medium-sized bronchi. The dilations arise from rec
Pneumoconioses
Vomiting stimulus The medulla is stimulated by irritants in the tract, inflammation of the tract's mucosa, or small intestine distortion (by pressure). The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)stimulates the vomiting center in response to: the presence of specific chemicals in
Liver tests Alkaline phosphatase, nucleotidase, GGT, AST,ALT
Drugs for H Pylori and Peptic ulcers bismuth, metronidazole (flagyl), antibiotics, antisecretory agents
Antisecretory agents cimetidine (Tagamet) rantidine (Zantac) pantoprazole (Protonix) omeprazole (Prilosec) nizatidine (Axid) misoprostol (Cytotec)
Sodium bicarbonate, Aluminum hydroxide gel, Magnesium oxide, Sucalfate (Carafate)
Hypochlorhydria,Pancreatic enzymes (pancreatin/Viokase; pancrelipase/Cotazym/Pancrease/Ku-zyme/Creon/Ultrase/Zymase , Lactase/Lactaid
agar, psyllium seed, methylcellulose, Citrucel), mineral oil, magnesia magma/M.O.M. magnesium citrate, electrolytes plus polyethylene glycol/NuLytely/GoLytely sodium phosphate monobasic/Visikol castor oil, senna, Dulcolax, docusate
Antidiarrheals Kaopectate diphenoxylate (Lomotil) loperamide (Imodium)
Purpose of the Urinary system remove metabolic wastes remove hormones, drugs, and other foreign material regulate water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance secrete erythropoietin activate vitamin D regulate blood pressure through the renin-antiotensin-aldosterone system
Hyponatremia Low sodium
Hypokalemia low potassium
Osmotic, Acid-Forming, Carbonic-Anhydrase Inhibitors, Thiazides
Endemic goiter
Toxic goiter
Hyperinsulinemia
Adrenal Agents crotisone acetate (Cortogen, Cortone) hydrocortisone (Hydrocortone, Cortef, Solu-Cortef) prednisone (Deltasone, Sterapred) prednisolone (Prelone, Cotolone) methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol) triamcinolone acetonide (Aristocort, Kenalog) dexame
Hyperparathyroidism may be caused by an adenoma, hyperplasia, or secondary to renal failure; results in hypercalcemia
Hypoparatthyroidism may be caused by a congenital lack of the four parathyroid glands, following surgery or radiation in the neck region, or as a result of autoimmune disease; results in hypocalcemia
Pituitary Disease Benign adenomas are the most common cause of pituitary disorders
Osteopetrosis Rare congenital disorder in which the bones become overly dense. This results from an imbalance between the formation of bone and the breakdown of the bone. There are several types of osteopetrosis of varying severity. Symptoms can include fractures, freq
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily. Sometimes the bones break for no known reason. Osteogenesis imperfecta can also cause weak muscles, brittle teeth, a curved spine and hearing loss. The cause is a gene defect that affects how the
Achondroplasia A genetic disorder that results in abnormally short stature.
Paget's Disease An unusual, chronic bone condition that occurs in only about 1% of people in the United States and slightly more often in men than in women. Individuals with Paget's disease experience rapid bone repair which causes a variety of symptoms from softer bones
Osteoporosis Causes bones to become brittle and fracture easily. In most cases, bones weaken when there are low levels of calcium, phosphorus and other minerals in the bones
Osteomyelitis An infection of the bone or bone marrow which be caused by trauma, diabetes, hemodialysis, and IV drug abuse
Osteosarcoma primary malignant neoplasm that usually develops in the metaphysis of the femur, tibia, or fibula in children or young adults, particularly males
Ewing's sarcoma malignant neoplasm common in adolescents that occurs in the diaphysis of long bones
Chondrosarcomas arise from cartilage cells and are more common in adults older than 3
Muscular Dystrophy group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of skeletal muscle. Duchenne's (pseudohypertrophic) is the most common type of MD
Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome group of disorders characterized by pain and stiffness affecting muscles, tendons, and surrounding soft tissues
Contact Dermatitis may be caused by exposure to an allergen or by direct chemical or mechanical irritation of the skin
Urticaria (Hives) results from a type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly caused by ingested substances such as shellfish or certain fruits or drugs.
Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) a common problem in infancy and may persist into adulthood in some persons
Psoriasis a chronic inflammatory skin disorder of unknown origin, although it has a familial tendency
Lichen Planus an inflammatory condition of the skin and mucous membranes of unknown cause, but the condition has been associated with certain drugs and chemicals
Discoid (Cutaneous) Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) inflammatory skin disease due to an abnormal immune reaction; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder
Pemphigus an autoimmune disorder that comes in several forms: pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, and pemphigus erythematosus
Scleroderma may occur as a skin disorder or it may be systemic affecting the viscera; unknown cause; collagen deposits, inflammation, and fibrosis with decreased capillary networks develop in the skin, leading to hard, shiny, tight, immovable areas of skin
Cellulitis (erysipelas An acute inflammation of the connective tissue of the skin, caused by bacterial infection
Furuncles (boils) A localized swelling and inflammation of the skin resulting from bacterial infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue, having a hard central core, and forming pus
Impetigo An acute contagious staphylococcal or streptococcal skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and yellowish crusts
Acute Necrotizing Fascitis An insidiously advancing soft tissue infection characterized by widespread fascial necrosis. Organisms spread from the subcutaneous tissue along the superficial and deep fascial planes, presumably facilitated by bacterial enzymes and toxins. This deep inf
Herpes Simplex (cold sores) An infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area
Herpes Zoster (shingles) An acute viral inflammation of the sensory ganglia of spinal and cranial nerves associated with a vesicular eruption and neuralgic pain and caused by reactivation of the herpesvirus causing chicken pox.
Verrucae (warts) A wart or a warty skin lesion.
Tinea Any of several fungal diseases of the skin, including ringworm and athlete's foot
Scabies Contagious itch or mange especially with exudative crusts that is caused by parasitic mites
Pediculosis (lice) Infestation with lice, typically occurring on the scalp
Keratoses benign lesions that are usually associated with aging or skin damage
sebhorrheic keratoses result from proliferation of basal cells, leading to an oval elevation that may be smooth or rough and is often dark in color
actinic keratoses occur on skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation and commonly arise in fair-skinned person
Squamous Cell Carcinoma painless, malignant tumor of the epidermis; sun exposure is a major contributing factor
Malignant Melanoma very serious form of skin cancer that develps from the melanocytes; development depends on genetic factors, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and hormonal influences
Kaposi's Sarcoma rare type of skin cancer that is often associated with HIV or AIDS.
Local (Focal) Effects signs related to the specific area of the brain or spinal cord in which the lesion is located
Supratentorial and Infratentorial Lesions supratentorial lesions occur in the cerebral hemispheres above the tentorium cerebelli; infratentorial lesions are located in the brainstem
Left and Right Hemispheres damage to the left hemisphere leads to loss of logical thinking ability, analytical skills, other intellectual abilities, and communication skills; right-sided brain damage impairs appreciation of music and art and causes behavioral problems
Visual Loss: Hemianopia loss of the visual field depends on the site of damage in the visual pathway
Aphasia refers to an inability to comprehend or to express language
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) increased ICP is common in many neurologic problems, including brain hemorrhage, trauma, cerebral edema, infection, tumors, or accumulation of excessive amounts of CSF
Brain Tumors gliomas, meningiomas, adenomas, metastatic carcinomas
Vascular Disorders transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), cerebral aneurysms
Hydrocephalus excess CSF accumulates within the skull, compressing the brain tissue and blood vessels
Noncommunicating (obstructive hydrocephalus) occurs in babies when the flow of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked
Communicating Hydrocephalus absorption of CSF through the subarachnoid villi is impaired, resulting in increased pressure of CSF in the system
Spina Bifida group of neural tube defects that are congenital anomalies of varying severity
Cerebral Palsy group of disorders marked by some degree of motor impairment, caused by brain damage in the perinatal period
Multiple Sclerosis involves a progressive demylelination of the neurons of the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
Parkinson's Disease a progressive degenerative disorder, affecting motor function through loss of extrapyamidal activity
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis progressive degenerative disease causing muscle wasting and hardening of the lateral corticospinal tracts
Myasthenia Gravis autoimmune disorder that impairs the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction which results in skeletal muscle weakening and rapid muscle fatigue
Huntington's Disease an inherited disorder that does not manifest until midlife; progressive atrophy of the brain occurs, with degeneration of neurons
Myopia (nearsightedness) A condition in which the visual images come to a focus in front of the retina of the eye because of defects in the refractive media of the eye or of abnormal length of the eyeball resulting especially in defective vision of distant objects
Hyperopia (farsightedness A condition in which visual images come to a focus behind the retina of the eye and vision is better for distant than for near objects.
Presbyopia A visual condition which becomes apparent especially in middle age and in which loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye causes defective accommodation and inability to focus sharply for near vision
Astigmatism A defect of an optical system (as a lens) causing rays from a point to fail to meet in a focal point resulting in a blurred and imperfect image.
Strabismus (squint or cross-eye) Inability of one eye to attain binocular vision with the other because of imbalance of the muscles of the eyeball
Nystagmus Involuntary usually rapid movement of the eyeballs (as from side to side) occurring normally with dizziness during and after bodily rotation or abnormally following head injury or as a symptom of disease
Diplopia (double vision) A disorder of vision in which two images of a single object are seen (as from unequal action of the eye muscles
Keratatitis Inflammation of the cornea of the eye characterized by burning, blurring of vision, and sensitiveness to light and caused by infectious or noninfectious agents
Glaucoma results from increased intraocular pressure caused by an excessive accumulation of aqueous humor
Cataracts a progressive opacity or clouding of the lens
Detached Retina an acute problem that occurs when the retina tears because of marked myopia, degeneration with aging, or scar tissue that creates tension on the retina
Macular Degeneration common cause of visual loss in older persons
Otosclerosis an imbalance in bone formation and resorption with development of excess bone in the middle ear cavity
Meniere's Syndrome inner ear or labyrinth disorder
Retroversion a turning or tilting backward, as of the uterus
Retrocession abnormal backward displacement
Anteflexion a displacement forward of the uterus so that its axis is bent upon itself
Uterine Prolapse occurs when pelvic floor muscles and ligaments stretch and weaken, providing inadequate support for the uterus. The uterus then descends into the vaginal canal
Cystocele hernia of a bladder and especially the urinary bladder
Rectocele herniation of the rectum through a defect in the intervening fascia into the vagina
Leiomyoma (fibroids) benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant
Ovarian Cysts small fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovaries; most cysts are harmless, but some may cause problems such as rupturing, bleeding, or pain; and surgery may be required to remove the cyst(s)
Fibrocystic Breast Disease common, benign (non-cancerous) changes in the tissues of the breast
Cerebral Cortex Gray Matter, nerve cell bodies
Upper Motor Neurons Cells of the motor cortex of the frontal lobe
Extrapyramidal System Controls and coordinates skeletal muscle activity
Created by: DRIOS2