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CIT222 Ch 2

CIT222 Linux Chapter 2 - Installation and Usage

QuestionAnswer
Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) See also Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment.
arguments The text that appears after a command name, does not start with a dash “-” character, and specifies information the command requires to work properly.
authentication The process whereby each user must log in with a valid user name and password before gaining access to the user interface of a system.
BASH shell The Bourne Again Shell; it is the default command-line interface in Linux.
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) The part of a computer system that contains the programs used to initialize hardware components at boot time.
boot loader A small program started by BIOS that executes the Linux kernel in memory.
command A program that exists on the hard disk and is executed when typed on the command line.
dual booting The process of installing more than one operating system on a computer. The user can then choose the operating system to load at system startup.
ext2 A nonjournaling Linux filesystem.
ext3 A journaling Linux filesystem.
ext4 An improved version of the ext3 filesystem with an extended feature set and better performance.
extended partition A partition on a hard disk that can be further subdivided into components called logical drives.
filesystem The way in which a hard disk partition is formatted to allow data to reside on the physical media; common Linux filesystems include ext2, ext3, ext4, REISER, and VFAT.
firstboot wizard A configuration utility that is run at system startup immediately following a Fedora Linux installation.
Free Identity, Policy, and Audit (FreeIPA) A set of security software that provides secure authentication across a network using several technologies that work together, including LDAP, Kerberos, NTP, and DNS.
GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) A common boot loader used in Linux.
GUID Partition Table (GPT) The area of a large hard disk (> 2TB) outside a partition that stores partition information and boot loaders.
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) A list of hardware components that have been tested and deemed compatible with a given operating system.
info pages A set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentation available by typing the info command.
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) See also Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment.
journaling A filesystem function that keeps a journal of the information that needs to be written to the hard disk; common Linux journaling filesystems include ext3, ext4, and REISER.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) A protocol that is used by services to query directory databases for purposes of authentication.
logical drives The smaller partitions contained within an extended partition on a hard disk.
Logical Volume Manager (LVM) A set of services that is used to manage logical volumes stored on one or more hard disks.
manual pages The most common set of local command syntax documentation, available by typing the man command. Also known as man pages.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The area of a typical hard disk (< 2TB) outside a partition that stores partition information and boot loaders.
memtest86 A common RAM-checking utility.
metacharacters The key combinations that have special meaning in the Linux operating system.
Network Information Service (NIS) A set of services that is used to standardize the configuration and centralize the authentication of UNIX and Linux-based systems across a network.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) A protocol that is used to synchronize the time on a computer from across a network such as the Internet.
options The specific letters that start with a dash “-” or two and appear after the command name to alter the way the command works.
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) A legacy hard disk technology that uses ribbon cables to typically attach up to four hard disk devices to a single computer.
partitions A small section of an entire hard disk created to make the hard disk easier to use. Partitions can be primary or extended.
primary partitions The separate divisions into which a hard disk can be divided (up to four are allowed per hard disk).
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) A type of storage that can be used to combine hard disks together for performance and/or fault tolerance.
REISER A journaling filesystem used in Linux.
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) A hard disk technology that allows for fast data transfer along a serial cable. It is commonly used in newer workstation and serverclass computers.
shell A user interface that accepts input from the user and passes the input to the kernel for processing.
Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) A high-performance hard disk technology that is commonly used in server-class computers.
System Rescue A feature that allows you to boot a small Linux system from DVD to repair a Linux system that resides on the hard disk.
terminal The channel that allows a certain user to log in and communicate with the kernel via a user interface.
VFAT (Virtual File Allocation Table) A nonjournaling filesystem that might be used in Linux.
virtual memory An area on a hard disk, known as a swap partition, that can be used to store information that normally resides in physical memory (RAM), if the physical memory is being used excessively.
Winbind A set of software components that allows Linux computers to authenticate against a Microsoft Active Directory database.
Created by: Leisac