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Ecology and DNA Quiz

BIO TAG - Ecology, DNA and DNA Experiments Quiz

What were the originally discovered agents of disease? viruses. actually seen with a microscope in 1942
Define heredity. What plays a major role? characteristics passed on to next generation by DNA
Who was Frederick Griffith? What did he do? Why important? English bacteriologist. 1928. Found a chemical could TRANSFORM a harmless pneumonia bacteria into a KILLING form of pneumonia. Important because the TRANSFORMING FACTOR might be a GENE.
Describe what scientists knew about early chromosomes? Were they correct? Knew chromosomes consisted of DNA and proteins. Knew proteins had 20 types of building blocks (amino acids) and DNA 4 building blocks (nucleotides). Thought proteins were TRANSFORMING factor. WRONG about that.
Why was Hershey and Chase's discovery important? 1952. American. Radioactively tagged the DNA and the protein. Found the DNA was the genetic material.
Define bacteriophages. Tell why they were important to discovering DNA Viruses. "Bacteria- eaters" The fact that they inject just DNA into the target bacteria is DNA was the genetic heredity material.
Write the parts of Hershey and Chases's experiment 1. mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria.Phages infect bacteria cells 2.agitate in blender toseparate phages outside the bacteria from cells and their contents 3 centrifuge the mixture so bacteria form a pellet 4. measure radioactivity
Give brief conclusion of what you have gathered in reading of DNA experiments. DNA was the hereditary material
What kinds of bonds does DNA make? covalent between phosphate group and the sugar and the nitrogenous base. hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases.
The specific arrangement of parts of DNA gives it what capabilities? ability to store genetic information, copy it, pass it from generation to generation
What is DNA made of? N, C, H, O, P atoms. In molecules: phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases A, G, T, C.
What is RNA made of? N, C, H, O, P atoms. In molecules:phosphate group, ribose sugar nitrogenous bases and A, T, G, U.
What are nucleotides? a monomer of nucleic acid made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
What is the monomer of DNA? nucleotide
What is the polymer of DNA? polynucleotide
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases? A, T, G, C. A to T G to C
What are purines/pyrimidines? pyrimidies are SINGLE ring structures. C and T. purines are DOUBLE ring structures. A and G
What are the 3 components of each nucleotides? nitrogenous base, phosphate group and a 5-carbon sugar
Sketch nucleotides and label. on question list.
What is the result of the covalent bonds and arrangement between each nucleotide? double helix.
Why call it a backbone? It is a repeating pattern of sugar, phosphate, sugar, phosphate. The nitrogenous bases are arranged as appendages along this backbone.
Describe the phosphate group phosphorous atom in its center. It is the source of the acid in 'nucleic acid.'
Describe the sugar The sugar has 5 carbon atoms, 4 in its ring and 1 extending above the ring. The ring also includes an oxygen atom. The sugar is called 'deoxyribose' because compared to 'ribose' it is missing an oxygen atom
What is the full name of DNA and why? deoxyribonucleic acid . because nucleic comes from location of DNA in a eukaryotic cell. deoxyribose is the name of the sugar. It has an acidic phosphate group, that is why it is called an acid.
How is RNA different? sugar is Ribose instead of deoxyribose. Instead of T it has U. single not double helix
What role do proteins play in the structure of DNA? proteins are called HISTONES. The histones combine with the DNA top coil the material tightly to form CROMATIN.
Who were the first scientists to discover the structure of DNA Crick and Watson (based on seeing Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins X-Ray diffraction pictures )
What is the familiar term they used double-helix
Describe the model they came up with and its role in the discovery? double helix. showed paring of A-T and G-C. 2 strands wrapped around eachother. Model explained how DNA could be copied and carry information.
What did Chargaff discover? What is Chargaff's rule? (1950, America) found that the % of guanine = % of cytosine. and the % of tyhmine =- % of adenine. . Called 'chargaff's rule.'
Sketch an untwisted double-stranded DNA and label the parts and bonds. on 'supplemental reading questions page sketched and labeled.
What is the sequence of nucleotides? Does that limit the length of the DNA strand? sequence can VARY in countless ways. No.
With a complete picture of DNA, we can see the genetic information in a chromosome must be encoded in the___________ nucleotide sequence of the molecule.
define genotype genetic makeup. The heritableinformation contained in its DNA
define phenotype the TRAITS. Example, one flower purple, one flower blue.
How does a genotype use protein molecules to express a phenotype? Describe the steps. DNA does NOT build a protein directly., DNA dispatches instructions in the form of RNA. RNA programs the protein. The chain of command is DNA (in the nucleus)-->RNA-->protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Define transcription. When and how does transcription occur. the transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule
Define translation. When and how does translation occur? transfer of the information in RNA into the protein.
What were Garrod's ideas? Were they important? English physician 1909. Suggested GENES dictate PHENOTYPES through ENZYMES, the proteins that catalyze chemical processes in the cell. He was RIGHT. Fundamental concept.Each step of a metabolic pathway is catalyzed by specific enzyme.
What does the phrase 'one gene-one polypeptide' mean? (The work of Beadle and Tatum First thought one gene-one protein. The theory was that the job of a gene is to dictate the production of a specific enzyme. Then found One protein has multiple polypeptides and different genes code each polypeptide. So became ONE GENE-ONE POLYPEPTIDE.
What is the monomer of DNA and RNA? Monomers of DNA and RNA are their 4 types of NUCLEOTIDES
The sequence of nucleotides of the RNA molecule dictates the ______________ sequence of AMINO ACIDS of the POLYPEPTIDE.
How is RNA a messenger? The genetic information that dictates the amino acid sequence is based in DNA.
What is a triplet code? How does it code for an amino acid? triplets of bases are the smallest 'word' that specifies an amino acid. " AAT in RNA could specify amino acid
How many triplets are there? (4 CUBED) There are 64 possible triplets. They code only 20 amino acids. This means more than one triplet can code the same amino acid. Example both AAT and AAC both code the same amino acid.
What is a codon synonym for triplet code of 3 base word of RNA.
Describe the process from DNA strand to polypeptide DNA strand TRANSCRIBES into RNA sequence. (Example A pairs with U). Then the RNA in the cytoplasm TRANSLATES the triplet words (codons) into AMINO ACID sequence. The AMINO ACID sequence is called a POLYPEPTIDE.
(from pre-quiz) What are the THREE common parts of a nucleotide? deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogen base
(from pre-quiz)What is the ONE part of a nucleotide that differs among the four DIFFERENT nucleotides in your group? nitrogen base
List the four different kinds of nitrogen bases, spell out, do not abbreviate. adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Explain WHERE the nucleotide molecules connect (bond to each other. Be specific. there are TWO locations where nucleotides connect. 1. in between the nitrogen bases. 2. the phosphate of the nucleotide bonds to the sugar of another nucleotide.
You will notice that the nucleotides pair up in a specific pattern. What is the pairing arrangement of the nitrogen bases? Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine.
Are there always going to be an EQUAL number of adenine and thymine nucleotides in a DNA molecule Yes. because Adenine pairs with Thymine.
Are there always going to be an EQUAL number of guanine and cytosine molecules in a molecule of DNA? Yes. because Guanine pairs with Cytosine.
The sides of the DNA ladder are made up of alternating ______ and ______ to form the backbone sugar and phosphate
The two components of adjacent nucleotides bond in the process of __________ ___________ therefore a __________ bond exists between each nucleotide in the backbone of DNA dehydration synthesis, covalent
In the process of dehydration synthesis, what type of bond forms: ionic, covalent or hydrogen? covalent
The steps or rungs of the ladder of DNA are made of ____ ________ held together by hydrogen bonds nitrogen bases
I have 46 chromosomes in each one of my cells. Chromosomes are made up of DNA with associated proteins (remember, how the double helix coils and coils are coiled around proteins). How specifically does my DNA differ from your DNA/ Complete sentence. Our DNA differs in the sequence of the nitrogen bases. We each have A, T, G, C but the sequence varies.
Created by: stinglasher23
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