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BVIU

economic words, words related to bank, finance...translated into Vietnamese

QuestionAnswer
Brand Value giá trị thương hiệu
DIGITAL MEDIA phương tiện truyền thông kỹ thuật số
INTRANET mạng nội bộ
REFITTED tân trang lại
MARKET SEGMENT phân khúc thị trường
MINIMALIST tối giản
STAFF MORALE tinh thần nhân viên
INTERNAL nội bộ
DELEGATE ủy thác, giao phó trách nhiệm, công việc
APPRAISE thẩm định
IMPACT tác động
DISRUPT phá vỡ
STOCKIST SYN: RETAILER công ty/cửa hàng bán lẻ
PITFALL hố, ổ gà ổ vịt - ý nói những hiểm họa, khó khăn...tiềm ẩn
AROUSAL kích thích
OPTIMUM tối ưu
work for a company work on car design people work under me work with managers làm việc cho 1 cty làm trong bộ phận thiết kế xe mọi người làm việc dưới quyền tôi làm việc cùng với các giám đốc
in work >< out of work có công việc >< thất nghiệp
at work ở chỗ làm, vẫn đang làm việc
off work nghỉ việc do bị ốm or có lý do nào đó
nine-to-five jobs công việc từ chín giờ sáng đến 5 giờ chiều, ý nói công việc có giờ làm thông thường.
clock in and clock out clock on and clock off bấm giờ đến và giờ về
work in shifts làm việc theo ca
commute to work đi làm ( bằng các phương tiện thông thường)
commuters người đi lại
teleworking telecommuting làm việc tại nhà thông qua điện thoại hoặc internet
satisfying, stimulating, fascinating, exciting the work is interesting and gives you positive feelings
dull, boring, uninteresting, unstimulating the work is not interesting
repetitive, routine the work involves doing the same things again and again
tiring, tough, hard, demanding the work is difficult and makes you tired
my work involves +N/ving, human contact, long hours, team work, solving problems, travelling a lot, dealing with customers .... công việc của tôi liên quan đến...
recruitment the process of finding people for particular jobs is recruitment or, AE, hiring
a recruit/ a hire someone who has been recuited
outside recruiters, recruitment agencies, employment egencies nhà tuyển dụng
headhunters (n), headhunt (v), headhunting (n - the process) những người chuyên làm công việc săn tìm người cho một công việc nào đó, thuyết phục họ bỏ chỗ đang làm đến một công ty mới.
headhunters may be called on to headhunt people. be called on: gọi đến để...
situation(s) vacant tình trạng bỏ trống, ý nói các công việc đang tìm nhân viên cho một vị trí nào đó.
application form mẫu đơn xin việc
send it in gửi đi đến đâu
appointment(s) SYN: situation(s) vacant
CV - curriculum vitae -BrE resume - AE
covering letter - BrE cover letter - AE
selection process quy trình tuyển chọn
handwriting analysis bản phân tích viết tay
candidate ứng cử viên
a group discussion nhóm thảo luận, trao đổi với rất nhiều ứng cử viên cho công việc
psychometric tests bài test dạng tâm lý học để nhận biết trí thông minh và tính cách con người
shortlist thu gọn lại danh sách, chọn ra vài người tiêu biểu nhất
paper qualification bằng học vấn
train as a scientist đào tạo, huấn luyện như một nhà khoa học
train for a specific job đào tạo, huán luyện cho một công việc cụ thể
qualify as a biologist hội đủ điều kiện như một nhà sinh vật học
in-house training đào tạo, huấn luyện trong quá trình làm việc
management development phát triển quản lý
management training đào tạo quản lý
highly skilled e.g. car designer
skilled e.g. car production manager
semi-skilled e.g. taxi driver
unskilled e.g. car cleaner
someone is SKILLED AT/ SKILLED IN +N/ving, customer care, electronics, computer software, communicating, using PCs, working with large groups...
good with... computers, figures, people
self-starters, proactive, self-motivated, self-driven good at working on their own, making their own decision, without waiting people to tell them how to do or what to do, capable of hard work...
methodical, systematic, organized can work in a planned, orderly way, work carefully, logical way.
computer-literate good with computers
numerate good with numbers
motivated very keen to do well in their job
talented naturally very good at what they do
team players people who work well with other people
salary money paid to worker each month
wage(s) money paid to worker each week
perk(s) sth you receive as well as your wages for doing a particular job (free meals)
minimum wage the lowest amount allowed by law
tips tiền boa
basic salary mức lương cơ bản
commission tiền hoa hồng
a bonus tiền thưởng
fringe benefit(s) compare with perk(s), (company car)
pension tiền lương hưu
benefits package gói lợi nhuận, gồm fringe benefits, pension...
pay and benefits lương và lợi ích
compensation and remuneration formal words used to talk about pay and benefits, especially those of senior managers
compensation package and remuneration package used especially in US to talk about all the pay and benefits that employees receives
share options - BrE / stock options - AmE the right to buy the company's shares at lơ prices, for senior executives
performance-related bonuses the money u earn depends on hơ well u do your job
compensation used to talk about money and other benefits that a senior manager (or any employee) receives if they are forced to leave the organization, perharps after a boardroom row
compensation payment / severance payment the form of compensation
severance package severance payment + benefits
fat cat(s) (Britain) executives with very high pay and good benefits
payroll bảng lương
labour (or labor AmE) nhân công lao động, gồm: the management, white-collar workers, supervisor, manual/blue-collar workers
shop floor tầng sản xuất mặt hàng, xưởng
head office headquarters (HQ)
open-plan office where most employees work
administrative staff / support staff đội ngũ nhân viên support
labor unions (AmE) trade union (BrE): công đoàn lao động, bảo vệ quyền lợi cho những người lao động
industrial action những hành động chống đối khi không hài lòng với công việc
a strike, stoppage, walk-out stop working for a time
a go-slow work more slowly than usual
an overtime ban refuse to work overtime
Human resources department (HRD) human resources (HR), human resource management (HRM), personnel department
career path con đường sự nghiệp
work your way up the career ladder tiến bước trên nấc thang sự nghiệp
senior cao cấp
demote giáng cấp
hierarchy hệ thống phân cấp
to become flatter with fewer layers of management
to become leaner with fewer, more productive employees
efficiency sự hiệu quả
performance review xem xét việc thực hiện công việc
If u do sth wrong, u r: dismissed, fired, sacked, terminated losing your job
If u've done nothing wrong, u r: laid off, made redundant, offered early retirement losing your job
passive smoking hút thuốc thụ động
hazardous substances chất độc hại
fire hazard lửa gây nguy hiểm
precaution biện pháp phòng ngừa
verbally bằng lời nói
sexual harassment quấy rối tình dục
discrimination sự phân biệt đối xử
be discriminated against bị phân biệt đối xử
sex discrimination phân biệt giới tính
glass ceiling a system in an organization that allows women to get to a particular level but no further
race chủng tộc
racial discrimination racism phân biệt chủng tộc
racist sự/hành động phân biệt chủng tộc, người phân biệt chủng tộc
affirmative action. in Britain, this is known as equal oppotunities. hành động khẳng định, is when help is given in education and employment to groups who were previously discriminated against.
dignity at work policy chích sách bảo vệ nhân phẩm tại nơi làm việc
organigram = organization chart , sơ đồ bộ máy tổ chức
the board all the directors together
non-executive director outsider
head up department đứng đầu bộ phận
executive (exec) manager at quite a high level, used with N to suggest luxury (executive home)
COO chief operating officer
CFO chief financial officer
VP vice president
entrepreneur doanh nhân
start-ups khởi sự
entrepreneurial kinh doanh, is used in an positive way to describe the risk-taking people who do this and their activities
business empire a large comp mainly owned by one person or a family
journalistic (adj) (thuộc về) báo chí
business leader(s) (journalistic terms: captain (s)of industry) successful business people, especially heads of large organizations
leadership skills khả năng lãnh đạo
magnate (+adj: media, press, shipping, oil) rich, powerful and successful person, especially in business
mogul (+adj: movie, media, shipping) ông trùm
tycoon (+adj: property, software) ông trùm
a concern formal words which means firm, company, business
big business doanh nghiệp lớn, large companies considered together
enterprise doanh nghiệp (to emphasize its risk-taking nature)
SME small or medium enterprise
corporation large company, especially in the US
corporate (adj) culture văn hóa doanh nghiệp
corporate headquarters trụ sở chính của công ty
corporate image hình ảnh công ty
corporate ladder nấc thang của công ty
corporate logo logo của công ty
corporate profits lợi nhuận của công ty
commerce thương mại, used to refer to business
chamber(s) of commerce phòng thương mại
commercial (adj) (thuộc về) thương mại
commercial airline hàng không thương mại
commercial artist nghệ sĩ thương mại
commercial television truyền thông thương mại
commercial disaster thảm họa thương mại
commercial land đất thương mại
state-owned thuộc sở hữu của bang
government-owned thuộc sở hữu của chính quyền
be nationalized quốc hữu hóa
bureaucratic quan liêu
privatize tư nhân hóa
free/ private enterprise doanh nghiệp tư nhân, tự do
enterprise culture/ economy/ zone văn hóa doanh nghiệp(cách hoạt động, tổ chức)/ nền kinh tế doanh nghiệp (bao gồm văn hóa)/ vùng doanh nghiệp (một phần đất nước noi doanh nghiệp được khuyến khích)
Sole trader (not used in US) self-employed, a freelancer. Sole owner & Sole proprietor are used both in BrE & AmE
partnership quan hệ đối tác (no shareholders)
liability trách nhiệm pháp lý
Ltd limited comp: công ty trách nhiệm hứu hạn
limited liability trách nhiệm hữu hạn (ex: don't have to use our personal property, such as a house or a car, to pay the comp's debts
PLC public limited company (anybody can buy and sell shares in comp on the stock market)
Inc Incorporated: kết hợp - a corporation - a term used especialy in the US for comp with limited liability
mutual (ex: life insurance comp) comp that when you buy sth (ex: insurance) with the comp you become a member. Profits are theoretically owned by the members, no shareholders
building society a kind of mutual, which lend money to people who want to buy a house
demutualized become public limited comp with shareholders
demutualization the process of being demutualized
non-profit organization (BrE) not-for-profit organization (AmE)tổ chức phi lợi nhuận
voluntary sector bộ phận/khu vực tình nguyện
manufacturing industries make up the manufacturing sector cars (BrE), automobiles (AmE), computer hardware, construction, defence, food processing, household goods, pharmaceuticals, steel, textiles (cloth and clothes)
service industries make up service sector catering(phục vụ-restaurants, bars...),computer software, financial services, healthcare,leisure(sport, theme parks...),media(books,film,newspaper...),property (BrE)/real estate(AmE)(buying,selling and managing buildings),retail,telecommunications,tourism
industrialize công nghiệp hóa
emerging industries các ngành công nghiệp đang nổi lên
light industries công nghiệp nhẹ
questionnaire bảng câu hỏi mang tính khảo sát
consumer panel kênh khách hàng, người tiêu dùng
focus group nhóm khách hàng thuộc mọi tâng lớp được hỏi để đưa ra ý kiến về một mặt hàng nào đó
sales forecast dự báo doanh số bán hàng
beta version phiên bản dùng thử
bugs probs
CADCAM computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing
prototype nguyên mẫu
industrial scale quy mô công nghiệp
rollout sự triển khai
design defect design fault lỗi thiết kế đc tìm thấy sau khii sp đã xuất xưởng
recall thu hồi
R&D research and development
innovative sáng tạo
breakthrough bước đột phá
cutting edge leading edge giai đoạn tiên tiến nhất
state-of-the-art using the most modern or advanced techniques or methods
obsolete SYN: out of date, lỗi thời
proprietary (thông tin, kiến thức) độc quyền
patent bằng sáng chế
under licence theo giấy phép
royalties tiền bản quyền
copyright bản quyền
intellectual property sở hữu trí tuệ
a product can be sth natural, sth made to be sold, a service
produce refers to agricultural products such as crops or fruit
assembly line dây chuyền lắp ráp
mass-produce sản xuất hàng loạt
highly automated tự động cao, use a lot of machinery
cost - effective chi phí hiệu quả, don't have to pay them wages
industrial robot robot công nghiệp, part of the CADCAM system
labour - intensive cần nhiều nhân công
workshop xưởng chế tác
craft industry thủ công nghiệp
churn out tung ra hàng loạt
capacity công suất
output sản lượng, mặt hàng
productivity năng suất
working at full capacity làm việc hết công suất
overproduction sản xuất quá lượng hàng cần thiết
excess capacity dư thừa công suất
spare capacity dư thừa công suất
overcapacity dư thừa công suất
surplus capacity dư thừa công suất
glut sự dư thừa OPP: shortage
component(s) thành phần (part(s))
capital money
to be work-in-progress to be being made
finished goods the products have been made
subcontracting using outside suppliers to provide components and services, thầu phụ
to be financed được tài trợ
to be stored được chứa đựng, cất giữ
to be handled được xử lý, di chuyển
just-in-time vừa đúng lúc
lean production lean manufacturing: sản xuất hiệu quả
specification(s) đặc điểm kỹ thuật (spec(s))
dimension(s) kích thước (size)
quality control kiểm soát chát lượng
conformity sự phù hợp
zero defects no faults at all
be done RIGHT FIRST TIME làm đúng ngay từ lần đầu tiên
reworking làm lại
spot check kiểm tra ngẫu nhiên tại một vài chỗ để đảm bảo độ chính xác
TQM total quality management: quản lý chất lượng toàn diện
quality circle(s) groups of employees who meet regularly to suggest improvements
enhancement(s) sự tăng cường, continuous improvement, Japanese name: Kaizen
mystery shoppers who pretend to be shoppers to check service in shops
mystery travellers to report on the standard of service before, during and after the flight
business philosophies triết lý kinh doanh
benchmarking điểm chuẩn, to compare our performance to other power stations
BPR business process reengineering: quy trình kinh doanh tái cấu trúc
customer base cơ sở khách hàng
client base clientele: cơ sở khách hàng
end-user ex: when a comp buys computers for its staff to use, the staff are the end-users
customers who buy "everyday" services such as train travel or telephone services
consumers people who buy products or services for their own use, especially considered as members of large groups of people buying things in advanced economies
vendor nhà cung cấp, a person who sell for ex property, people selling things in the street are street vendors
market forces/ pressures the way a market economy makes sellers produce what people want, at prices they are willing to pay
marketplace producers and buyers in a particular market economy, and the way they behave
market prices prices that people are willing to pay, rather than ones fixed by a government
market reforms changes a government makes to an economy, so that it becomes more like a market economy.
if a comp ENTERS/ PENETRATES a market it starts selling there for the first time
if a comp ABANDONS/ GETS OUT OF/ LEAVES a market it stops selling there
if a comp DOMINATES a market it is the most imp comp selling there
if a comp CORNERS/ MONOPOLIZES a market it is the only comp selling there
if a comp DRIVES ANOTHER COMP OUT OF a market it makes the other comp leave the market, perharps because it can no longer compete
rivals competitors, comp or products in the same market
key players the most imp comp in a particular market
when competition is strong, u can say that it is... intense, stiff, fierce, tough
when competition is not strong, u can say that it is... low-key
the four Ps product, price, place, promotion. A useful sum of the marketing mix.
the fifth P (sometimes added) packaging
marketing mix the activities that u have to combine successfully in order to sell
TO MARKET a prod to make a plan based on the four Ps and put it into action
marketer/ marketeer person, organization who works in marketing products
market orientation định hướng thị trường
market-driven market-led, market-oriented, marketers describe themselves because they often talk about market orientation
product catalogue/ mix/ portfolio catalog sản phẩm
product line/range dòng sản phẩm
product lifecycle the stages in the life of a product, and the number of people who buy it at each stage, vòng đời sản phẩm
product positioning how a comp would like a prod to be seen in relation to its other prod, or to competing prod
product placement when a comp pays for its prod to be seen in films and TV prog
consumer durables consumer goods that last a long time, such as cars and washing machines
FMCG fast-moving consumer goods: consumer goods such as food prod that sell quickly
the MAKE of the prod the name of the comp of the prod
brand awareness brand recognition: how much people recognize a brand
brand image the ideas people have about a brand
branding quảng cáo thương hiệu, creating brands and keeping them in customer's minds through ad, packaging...
brand identity nhận diện thương hiệu
own-brand product (BrE) a prod with the retailer's own name on it. own-label prod (AmE)
generic products / generics prod that are no branded, don't have a brand name
undercut to sell goods or services at a lower price than your competitors
loss leaders cheap items to attract customers in
recommended retail price giá bán lẻ được đề nghị
price boom a good period for sellers, when prices are rising quickly
price controls government efforts to limit price increases
price cut a reduction in price
price hike an increase in price
price war when competing comp reduce prices in response to each other
price leader a comp that is first to reduce or increase prices
upmarket(BrE) thị trường trên, thị trường hạng sang, cao cấp, upscale (AmE)
downmarket (BrE) thị trường dưới, thị trường hàng bình dân, downscale (AmE)
sophisticated (adj) tinh vi
low-end bottom-end: the cheapest model of one product
high-end top-end ><low-end
entry-level mức ban đầu. Ex: the cheapest entry-level skis are for beginners who have never bought skis before
mid-range models at the mid level
TRADE UP and move UPMARKET if u buy sophisticated skis to replace basic ones
TRADE DOWN and move DOWNMARKET if u buy cheaper skis after buying more expensive ones
mass market thị trường với số lượng hàng hóa được sản xuất rất nhiều, hàng loạt và số lượng người mua cũng lớn. for ex: family cars
a niche/ niche market a small group of buyers with special needs, which may be profitable to sell to. For ex: sport cars are a niche in the car industry
a distribution network includes: producers, wholesalers + retailers = distributors, -> distribution channel -> customers
wholesaler nhà bán buôn, middleman
shop (BrE) store (AmE), comp may call it a RETAIL OUTLET, SALES OUTLET
chain store chuỗi cửa hàng
convenience store small shop in a residential area and open long hours
deep discounter a supermarket with very low price
department store very large shop with a wide variety of goods, usually in a town centre
drugstore shop in a town centre in the US which sells medicines, u can also have coffee and meals here
hypermarket very large shop with a wide variety of goods, usually outside a town
shopping precinct shopping centre
shopping mall outside town, where it is easy to park
franchises are owned by the people that run them (FRANCHISEES), only sell the goods of one comp
franchisor the comp, provides goods, organizes ad, offers help and support
direct marketing tiếp thị trực tiếp, the business of selling products or services directly to customers who order by mail or by telephone instead of going to a shop / store
junk mail direct mail, advertising material that is sent to people who have not asked for it
mailshot advertising or information that is sent to a large number of people at the same time by mail
telemarketing selling by telephone
cold call (n) (n) of the practice of telephoning sb that you do not know, in order to sell them sth
product endorsement when famous people recommend a product
advertising agency an organization
sponsorship sự tài trợ
sales teritory sales area
promotion (uncountable) is all the activities supporting the sale of a product, including advertising
A promotion (countable) describes: a SPECIAL OFFER (discount), a FREE SAMPLE, FREE GIFT, COMPETITIONS with prizes
loyalty card the more u spend, the more points u get, and u can exchange these points for free goods or flights
cross-promotion is where u buy one prod, and u r recommended to buy another prod that may go with it
ISP internet service provider
shopping cart giỏ hàng online
unique users different individual visitors
hit page view
e-tailing e-commerce
bricks-and-mortar shop cửa hàng thông thường (với gạch và vữa), compare: clicks-and-mortar
traditional retailing bán hàng kiểu truyền thống, như bricks-and-mortar shops
last mile prob the physical delivery of goods to internet customers
B2C business-to-consumer
B2B business-to-business
B2G business-to-government
sales figures doanh số bán hàng
turnover money received from sales, doanh thu
revenue the money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization, etc. receives from its business
volume khối lượng
make a sale sell sth
be on sale be available to buy
unit sales the number of things sold
Sales a comp department
A sale a period when a shop is charging less than usual for goods
the sales a period when a lot of shops are having a sale
direct costs are directly related to providing the product (ex: salary)
fixed costs do not change when production goes up or down (ex: rent, heating...)
variable costs change when production goes up or down (ex: materials)
COGS cost of goods sold: the variable costs in making particular goods (ex: materials and salaries)
indirect costs, overhead costs, overheads are not directly related to production (ex: administration)
enpenses chi phí nói chung, especially indirect ones
costing the activity of calculating costs
costings amounts calculated for paricular things
margin lợi nhuận
mark-up an increase in the price of sth based on the difference between the cost of producing it and the price it is sold at
gross margin = selling price - direct production costs
net margin / profit margin / mark-up = selling price - total costs. net margin & profit margin usually is given as a percentage of the selling price. mark-up usually is given as a percentage of the total costs.
make a profit the product is profitable or PROFIT-MAKING, when the sale price per unit is higher than the cost per unit
break even reach break-even point, when the sale price per unit is equal to the cost per unit
make a loss the product is LOSS-MAKING, when the sale price per unit is lower than the cost per unit
money-spinner cash cow, product that have very good profitability, when the sale price per unit is much higher than the cost per unit
budget ngân sách
expenditure sự chi tiêu
to budget for to be careful about the amount of money you spend; to plan to spend an amount of money for a particular purpose:
go over budget chi tiêu vượt qua ngân sách, overspent $..
go under budget chi tiêu tiết kiệm, vẫn còn tiền trong ngân sách, underspent $...
advertising spend chi tiêu cho quảng cáo
learning curve (experience curve) the rate at which you learn a new subject or a new skill; the process of learning from the mistakes you make
ship dispatch, vận chuyển
invoice hóa đơn
invoicing billing, the activity of producing and sending invoices
trade credit a period of time that providers give consumers before they have to pay
pay UPFRONT trả tiền trước khi nhận hàng
cash flow the timing of payments coming into and going out of a business
accounts people or organizations the comp sell to (customers)
key accounts most imp customers
debtor (Britain) person who owes sb money
accounts receivable (US) receivables: customers that comp is waiting to be paid by
creditors (Britain) the suppliers and other organizations that comp owes money to
the Inland revenue the government department in Britain that is responsible for collecting taxes
account payables (US) payables: the suppliers and other organizations that comp owes money to
the Inland revenue service (US) like the inland revenue of Britain
bad debts some comp that owe money but can't pay or won't pay
write sb off to decide that sb/sth is a failure or not worth paying any attention to SYN  dismiss
asset tài sản, is sth that has value, or the power to earn money.
current assets money in the bank, investments that can easily be turned into money, money that customers owe, stocks of goods that are going to be sold
fixed assets equipment, buildings, land, machinery
intangible assets things which u can't see (goodwill, brands...)
goodwill the good relationship between a business and its customers that is calculated as part of its value when it is sold
depreciate (v) amortize: to reduce the value, as stated in the company’s accounts, of a particular asset over a particular period of time
depreciation (n) amortization
write off to cancel a debt; to recognize that sth is a failure, has no value, etc.
book value the value of an asset at any one time
liability the amount of money that a person or company owes
current liabilities debts that have to be paid within a year
long-term liabilities debts that can be paid in more than a year
balance sheet a written statement showing the amount of money and property that a company has and listing what has been received and paid out
financial year a period of twelve months over which the accounts and taxes of a company or a person are calculated
accountancy firm công ty kế toán
bookkeeper kế toán viên, who works under accountants
auditor a person who officially examines the business and financial records of a company
audit (v)(N) to officially examine the financial accounts of a company
a true and fair view an accurate and complete picture
window dressing creative accounting: giả mạo chi tiêu
accountancy (BrE) (profession) accounting (AmE)
accounting standards/rules những chuẩn mực, quy định của một công ty trong cách trình bày sổ sách thu chi
pre-tax profit lợi nhuận trước thuế
pre-tax loss lỗ trước thuế
exceptional profit/ loss is for sth that is not normally repeated, for example the sale of a subsidiary comp or the costs of restructuring
gross (Adj) (+N) being the total amount of sth before anything is taken away
gross profit
net profit afterwards
bottom line the amount of money that is a profit or a loss after everything has been calculated
profit and loss account (BrE) income statement (AmE)
to be in the red when a comp is making a loss
to be bleeding red ink to be haemorrhaging red ink = to be in the red
share capital capital from shareholders
dividend cổ tức
loan capital capital from lenders
equity capital in the form of shares
venture capitalist who puts up money for a lot of new companies, nhà đầu tư mạo hiểm
indebtedness the total amount of debt that a comp has
principal the sum of money borrowed
interest lãi suất phải trả từ tiền nợ
bond trái phiếu
debenture an official document that is given by a company, showing it has borrowed money from a person and stating the interest payments that it will make to them
collateral tài sản thế chấp
leverage (NAmE) gearing (BrE) the relationship between the amount of money that a company owes and the value of its shares
highly leveraged highly geared : a comp with a lot of borrowing in relation to its share capital
overleveraged a comp that has difficulty in making payments on its debt
surplus thặng dư
retained earnings thu nhập được giữ lại
cash reserves tiền mặt dự trữ
cash pile/ mountain núi tiền
make AQUISITION(S) to buy other comp
debt repayment/sevicing when a comp repays its debt an/or interest on it, "debt repayment" describes a particular amount repaid
debt burden a comp's debt, especially when considered as a prob
debt crisis when a comp has serious difficulty repaying its debt
debt rescheduling/restructuring when a comp persuades lenders to change repayment dates and terms
debt default when a comp fails to make a debt repayment
to reschedule a debt to restructuring a debt
to repay a debt to service a debt
to default on a debt
turnaround vốn quay vòng, a situation in which sth changes from bad to good
bailout vốn cứu trợ
to be sick, ailing, troubled to be in financial trouble
fill for bankruptcy protection (US) when a comp is in serious financial difficulty, it may ask a court to give it time to reorganize by...
go into administration (Britain) when a comp is insolvent
go into liquidation/receivership if the comp can't be saved, tiến hành thanh lý
to be wound up when a comp cant' be saved
to cease trading ngừng giao dịch
a stake/ an interest/ a holding in a comp the shares that one investor has in a comp
a majority stake/interest/holding when more than 50% of the shares of a comp are owned by one investor, giving them control over how it is run
a minority stake/interest/holding when an investor owns less than 50% of the shares of a comp
alliance liên minh,
joint venture liên doanh
friendly bid công ty bị đem ra đấu thầu chấp nhận và đông ý điều đó một cách tự nguyện
hostile bid >< friendly bid
predator a person or an organization that uses weaker people for their own advantage
white knight a person or an organization that rescues a company from being bought by another company at too low a price
prey a person who is harmed or tricked by sb, especially for dishonest purposes
poison pill a form of defence used by a company to prevent, or to reduce the effect of, a takeover bid that they do not want, for example by selling some of their important possessions
conglomerate tập đoàn
subsidiary công ty con
to diversify into đa dạng hóa, mở rộng mặt hàng
current account, cheque account (BrE) tài khoản vãng lai, checking account (AmE)
to be in the black >< to be in the red
overdraft thấu chi, chi tiêu quá lượng tiền có sẵn
deposit account saving account: tài khoản tiết kiệm
mortgage a loan to buy house
bank statement a printed record of all the money paid into and out of a customer’s bank account within a particular period
banking charge khoản phí ngân hàng
telephone banking một loại dịch vụ cho phép ng dùng gọi điện thoai để kiểm tra tiền trong tài khoản
account balance số dư tài khoản, the amount I have in my account
Internet banking tg tự telephone banking
manage my account kiểm soát tài khoản
windfall (n) a special once-only payment of some of the society's assets to its members
unit trust quỹ tín thác, shares in investment com that put money from small investors into different comp
mutual fund (US) unit trust
financial centres places where there are many banks and other financial institutions (tổ chức tài chính)
the square mile the City - London as a financial centre
wall street New York
speculator an investor who wants to make a quick profit, rather than invest over a longer period of time
broker dealer, trader
to float the comp to sell shares for the 1st tine
flotation (N)
to be issued (BrE & AmE) to be listed (AmE, BrE), to be quoted (BrE)
bourses another name for stock markets in other countries
commercial paper short-term lending to businesses
currencies (foreign exchange or forex) the money of a particular country
commodity metals and farm products
securities which shares, bonds and commercial paper are called
securities houses the financial institutions that deal in securities
derivative contracts like futures contract and options contract. Dealers guess how the price of the underlying security or commodity will change in the future and use derivatives to try to buy them more cheaply
a futures contract an agreement giving an obligation to sell a fixed amount of a security or commodity at a particular price on a particular future date
an options contract an agreement giving the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security or commodity at a particular price at a future time, or in a period of future time
underlying ngầm
market indexes (indices) các chỉ số thị trường
market activity good times and bad times
spectacular gain những cú đạt được ngoạn mục
blue chips famous comp with history of profit in good and bad economic time
bull market (n) = rising prices
record high highest level ever
at the close end of the working day
bullish optimistic
to go through the barrier to pass the "round" number of...
panic selling selling shares for any price
spectacular decline large decrease
wipe off the value take off the total share value
bear market = falling prices >< bull market
bearish = pessimistic ><bullish
a rally prices starting to rise again
indicator chỉ số
finance is... money provided or lent for a particular purpose, the management of money by countries, organizations or people, the study of money management
high finance involves large amounts of money used by governments and large comp
economics is... the study of how money works and is used, calculations of whether a particular activity will be profitable
a profitable activity is... economic
an unprofitable activity is... uneconomic
if sth is economical it's cheap to buy, to use, to do
if sth is uneconomical it's not cheap to buy, use, do
inflation lạm phát
the balance of payments is the difference between the money coming into a country and that going out
the trade balance is the difference between payments for imports and payment foe exports
trade surplus when exports more than imports
trade deficit ><trade surplus
trade gap the amount of this surplus or deficit
economic output the value of goods and services produced in a country or area
GDP gross domestic product: the total value of all the goods and services produced by a country in one year
advance = surge: increase
jump = leap: go up quickly
skyrocket rise by a lot
soar increase greatly
axe sa thải
cut reduce
ease go down slightly
plummet fall a lot
slash reduce by a large amount
dive fall
to level off if a figure rises to a level and then stops rising, remaining at that level
a peak the highest level
to peak reach the highest level and then goes down
a trough the lowest level
to bottom out fall to a trough and then starts rising again
demand the amount of goods and services that people want in a particular period
a boom when there is rising demand, and other indicators are strong
stagnation when the economy is growing slowly, or not at ll
stagflation when slow growth is combined with prices that are increasing fast
recession a period when there is negative growth, the economy is producing less
a slump a very bad recession
a depression a very bad slump
wrongdoing (n) hành vi sai trái
regulate điều chỉnh
wrongdoer (n) người có hành vi sai trái
insider dealing insider trading: someone buys or sells securities using information that is not publicity available
Chinese wall measures that you can take to stop knowledge in one department of your comp being illegally used by another department, to buy or sell shares for example
price fixing a group of comp in the same market secretly agree to fix prices at a certain level, so they do not have to compete with each other
market rigging a group of investors work together to stop a financial market functioning as it should, to gain an advantage for themselves
bribery (n) hành động hối lộ, sự hối lộ
bankhander (BrE only) (informally) kickback, sweetener: a bribe: an illegal payment
corrupt (v,adj) someone who receives bribes
corruption sự tham nhũng
sleaze (informal) corruption, especially in politics
fraud (n) gian lận
counterfeit (v,adj) giả mạo
note a piece of paper of money
forgery (n) counterfeiting (n)
forger (n) người làm tiền giả
fake(s) (n) đồ giả
embezzle (v) to steal money that you are responsible for or that belongs to your employer, tham ô
embezzlement(n) a type of fraud
quite a scam khá là thông minh. SCAM(n):a clever and dishonest plan for making money
racketeer(n) (disapproving) a person who makes money through dishonest or illegal activities
money laundering rửa tiền, hiding the illegal origin of money
ethics nguyên mẫu đạo đức, những quy tắc về đạo đức
code of ethics quy tắc đạo đức, code of conduct
unethical (adj) actions that are not criminal but they are morally wrong
ethical issues areas where choices have to be made about right and wrong behaviour, những vấn đề đạo đức
exploit khai thác
sweatshop labor bóc lột lao động
affirmative action program chương trình thực hiện những hành động kiên quyết bảo vệ những người bị phân biệt đối xử
ethical investment đạo đức đầu tư
tobacco thuốc lá
green issues những vấn đề xanh, liên quan đến môi trường
be environmentally damaging gây thiệt hại môi trường
green activist activist: a person who works to achieve political or social change, especially as a member of an organization with particular aims
timeframe timescale: khung thời gian
lead time the period of time it takes to prepare and complete or deliver sth
a delay (n) SỰ CHẬM TRỄ
make up time try to go faster
take longer than planned lâu hơn dự kiến
downtime a period when a machine or computer cannot be used because it is not working
overlap chồng chéo lên nhau, the second thing starts before the first one finishes
simultaneous run in parallel, đồng thời
project management the managing of the stages/steps
stage phase, step, task
big projects often include... BONUS PAYMENTS for COMPLETION early or ON TIME, and PENALTIES for late completion
personal organizers small pocket-size computers
in advance trước
a realistic plan not just a list
prioritize (v) ưu tiên hóa, in order of importance
perfectionism (n) sự cầu toàn
rewarding (adj) worth doing, that makes u happy because u think it's useful or imp
stretched (adj) sth could be hard but still stimulating
challenging (adj) difficult but in an interesting and enjoyable way
overwhelmed (adj) to be so bad or so great that a person can't deal with it, choáng ngợp
under stress under pressure
stress-induced (n) caused by stress
stresses and strains pressures
become stressed out too anxious and tired to be able to relax
overwork (n) the fact of working too hard
nervous breakdown a period of mental illness in which sb becomes very depressed and anxious and tired, cant' deal with normal life
be burned out so stressed and tired by work that will never be able to work again
burnout (n) the state of being burned out
rat race (n) treadmill(n): the feeling that work is too competitive
unstressful
quality time time spent giving your full attention to sb, especially to your children after work
downshift(n,v) rebalance (v): to choose to live and work in a less stressful way
downshiter (n) people who choose to downshift
subordinate(s) the people working below sb, cấp dưới
flair sự tinh tế
charisma uy tín
a visionary ng có tầm nhìn xa trông rộng
drive (n) động lực
dynamism sự năng động
leaders have... drive, dynamism and energy
consensus sự đồng thuận
impose (v) áp đặt
top-down approach phương pháp tiếp cận từ trên xuống
consultation sự tư vấn
authoritarian độc đoán
empowerment (n) sự trao quyền
initiative sáng kiến
decentralize (v) to give some of the power of a central government, organization, etc. to smaller parts or organizations around the country
canteen culture the ways that people in an organization such as the police think and talk, not approved by the leaders of the organization
long-hours culture where people are expected to work for a long time each day
macho culture ideas typically associated with men: physical strength, aggressiveness (sự gây hấn)...
stereotypes fixed ideas that may not be true
a team of equals một nhóm bình đẳng
deference (v) behaviour that that show that u r accepting decisions but not participating in them, u respect but don't like them
forms of address the correct titles to use when you talk to sb
business suit bộ vest công sở
casual Fridays dress-down Fridays: những ngày thứ sáu được ăn mặc tùy ý khi đi làm
smart casual Smart casual (as distinct from business casual) is a loosely defined dress code, casual, yet "smart" (i.e. "neat") enough to conform to the particular standards of certain Western social groups.
corporate hospitality when comp entertain customers to help develop good business relationships
presenteeism (n) being at work when you don't need to be
business lunch lunch break
working breakfast
puntuality sự đúng giờ
payphone public telephone: điện thoại công cộng
cellular phone, cellular(AmE) cellphone
WAP phone wireless application protocol phone: a mobile phone with access to the Internet
extension one of a number of phones on the same line, in a home or office
cordless phone. cordless an extension not connected by a wire, so you can use it around the house or in the garden
pager allows you to receive written messages
to call someone, to call up someone, to call someone up (AmE) to ring someone, to ring up someone, to ring someone up, to give someone a ring (BrE), to give someone a bell, to give someone a buzz (informal BrE)
helpline hotline, information line, reservations line: phone numbers where u can get info or advice, buy things, make reservations...
an 0800 number (BrE) a Freephone number (BrE)
a 1-800 number (AmE) a toll-free number (AmE)
phoning scenario u want to phone someone in a comp. U pick up the phone, u hear the dialling tone and dial the number on the keypad, u don't know the person's direct line numbers, so u dial the number of the comp's switchboard...
engaged tone (BrE) busy tone (AmE)
GET THROUGH compare with PUT THROUGH when you are accessed yourself vs you are accessed by someone else
to be cut off the call ends
call you back return your call
i'm (rather) tied up at the moment (when calling) đang bận
dash or hyphen -
(forward) slash /
backslash \
I'm completely snowed under at the moment I'm very busy at the moment
Can we leave it open for the time being? Can we decide not to fix a day for the time being?
get back in touch contact you again
cover sheet the 1st page of a fax showing who it's from, who it's to...
confidential information things that others should not know
intended recipient the person who should receive the fax
advise the sender tell the person who sent it
legible (adj) dễ đọc
cc send a copy to (and all others can see and know about it)
bcc send a blind copy to (others won't know about it)
AFAIK as far as I know
HTH hope this helps
arrange/ set up/ fix a meeting organize a meeting
bring forward a meeting >< put back/ postpone a meeting: make a meeting earlier><later than originally decided
chair a meeting run a meeting
brainstorm(v)ing(n) brainstorming among colleagues: where as many ideas as possible are produced quickly, to be evaluated later
project meeting team meeting
AGM (BrE) annual general meeting, annual meeting (AmE): where shareholders discuss the comp's annual report
EGM extraordinary general meeting: a shareholder's meeting to discuss an imp such as a proposed merger
to cover a lot of ground to deal with much information and many facts
wander off the point đi lạc đề, mở rộng quá >< stick to the point
circulating the agenda to everyone concerned distributing, phân phát
a minute-taker who takes the minutes, ghi chép lại những việc quan trọng
allocate the time to sth ấn định thời gian
resolve decide
deal tactfully deal in a careful way not to do or say anything that will annoy or upset sb
digression sự lạc đề
accurate record bản ghi chép ch' xác
matters arising any points from the last meeting that need to be discussed
shall we make a start? / Let's get down to business / Let's make a start opening the meeting
As you know, I've called this meeting to...// As you are aware I've arranged this meeting to.../The purpose of this meeting is to.../ The main objective is to... opening the meeting (cont)
Would you like to open the discussion? Would you like to kick off? Perhaps you'd like to get the ball rolling? Inviting someone to start
What are your feelings on this? What are your views on this? Asking for one person's opinion
What's the general feeling on this? asking for everyone's opinion
As I see it, /The way I see it... /It's clear to me that.../ Personally, I think.../ It looks to me as if.../ Obviously... making your point
courteous (adj) lịch sự
You're perfectly right/ I couldn't agree more/ Precisely/ Exactly/ Absolutely/ You may be right there/ That's true, I suppose/ I suppose so agreement
That's not really how I see it/ I don't really agree/ I can't really go along with you there/ I think you've mistaken/ I'm afraid I can't agree with you there mild disagreement
I'm sorry, but that's out of the question/ I think you're wrong/ That's absurd (vô lý)/ That's ridiculous strong disagreement
I take your point/ I understand what you're saying (about...)/ I see-know what you mean/ I hear where you're coming from on this hedging (when you avoid disagreeing directly)
Can I come in here? If I just stop you for a moment...Sorry to interrupt you, but... to interrupt politely
As we were saying earlier... To go back to what X was saying earlier.../ To go back to what I just saying... to refer back to what was said earlier
Are you saying that...? Are you suggesting that...? Are you implying that...? If I understand (you) correctly,... If I follow you... To check that you understand what someone has said
come to a consensus sth that most people can agree with
to compromise/ to find a compromise an agreement where people accept less than they wanted at first
Unless anyone has anything else to add, I think that's it . Thank you all for coming/ I think that's a good place to stop. Thank you for listening concluding - end
press conference two chief executives tell journalists why their comp have merged
briefing a senior officer gives info to other officers about a police operation they are about to undertake
demonstration the head of research and development tells non-technical colleagues about a new machine
product launch a car comp announces a new model
lecture a university professor communicates info about economics to 300 students
talk a member of a stamp-collecting club tells other members about 19th century British stamps
seminar a financial adviser gives advice about investment to 8 people
workshop a yoga expert tells people how to improve their breathing techniques and gets them to practise
a stand-up presentation 1 person talking to an audience
visual aids pictures, diagrams...
Don't labour a particular point spend too long on sth
monotone on the same level of voice all the time
vary the PITCH of your voice level
gain the audience's attention
telling an ANECDOTE a story
mannerism way of moving and speaking which you do repeatedly without realizing
last, but by no means least last but not least
That's a fair point/ That's confidential/ That's not really my field/ The questioner would like to know...Is that right?/ well, I think that goes beyond the scope of today's presentation/ I'm afraid we've run out of time use when answering question
Sorry, I didn't catch the question, could you repeat?
mutual advantage good for both
settle disputes decide arguments
contract disputes
labour disputes
trade disputes
intense(ive) negotiations are very difficult and tiring, with a lot being discussed
delicate/tense negotiations are very difficult and could easily fail
eleventh-hour/ last-minute negotiations take place at the last possible moment of the time available
protracted negotiations take a very long time
bargain another word for negotiate
collective bargaining
pay bargaining
wage bargaining discussions between groups of employees and their employers about pay and conditions
bargaining ploy/ tactic a particular technique used by a negotiator
bargaining chip/tool an issue that a negotiator uses in order to gain an advantage
bargaining point a particular issue that a negotiator discusses
bargaining power the degree to which one side is strong enough to obtain what it wants
bargaining process the way that negotiations develop
fallback position conditions that you will accept if your original objectives are not met
be on your own ground/ on home ground in your own offices
neutral ground for ex: a hotel
win-win solution an agreement of equal benefit to both sides
probe (v,n) ask the right questions and listening carefully to the answers
If/As long as/ On condition that/ Supposing that/ Provided that/ Providing that...then we will/can/could/may/might be able to/agree to/ consider/ offer (to)... making offers
make a concession when you offer to change your position to one that is less favourable to yourself
horse-trading the activity of discussing business with sb using clever or secret methods in order to reach an agreement that suits you
haggle argue about sth for a long time, especially about the price of sth
trade-offs a series of concessions in exchange for concessions from the other side
make a trade-off give sth away and get sth in return
bargaining power when one side is in a stronger position than the other, they have more...
negotiate from weakness when the comp was in financial difficulty...
negotiate from strength ><weakness
moderate điều chỉnh vừa phải
under duress bị/chịu ép buộc
concede thừa nhận
back down to take back a demand, an opinion, etc. that other people are strongly opposed to; to admit defeat, từ chối, phản bác
climb down an act of admitting that you were wrong, or of changing your position in an argument
give in chấp nhận, đòng ý (miễn cưỡng)
ultimatum tối hậu thư
bluff lừa phỉnh
call someone's bluff pretend to believe them, when you know they are bluffing
underline COMMON GROUND the areas where agreement has been reached
reassure confirm
compromise (v,n) thỏa hiệp
obstacle / sticking point the prob that causes negotiations to become difficult
deadlock bế tắc SYN: stalemate
impasse (n) đường cùng
irreconcilable (adj) không thể hòa giải
mediator ng hòa giải, ng điều đình
cooling-off period when each side takes no action
arbitrator trọng tài
settlement resolution : nghị quyết, quyết định hòa giải
arbitration (n) sự phân xử
to clinch a deal to succeed in achieving or winning sth, triển khai kế hoạch
drive a hard bargain to get what they want in a negotiation
employment/ labour contract hợp đồng lao động
oral/ verbal contract is not written down, by mouth
binding/ legal contract forces both sides to carry out the actions that they had promised to carry out, by law
commercial contract is about buying or selling a product
Let me just go/run over the main points repeat and summarize
We still have the question of C to settle to decide and agree on
outstanding issue remaining undecided
Created by: Scarlett Hoang
 

 



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