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Chapter 8 Termss


80 conductor IDE cable An IDE cable that has 40 pins but uses 80 wires, 40 of which are ground wires designed to reduce crosstalk on the cable. The cable is used by ATA/66 and higher IDE drives.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) A nonprofit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards.
ATAPI (Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface) An interface standard, part of the IDE/ATA standards, that allows tape drives, optical drives, and other drives to be treated like an IDE hard drive by the system.
autodetection A feature of system BIOS and hard drives that automatically identifies and configures a new drive in BIOS setup.
block mode A method of data transfer between hard drive and memory that allows multiple data transfers on a single software interrupt.
boot record The first sector of a floppy disk or hard drive volume; it contains information about the disk or volume. On a hard drive, if the boot record is in the active partition, then it can be used to boot the OS. Also called boot sector.
boot sector See boot record
cluster One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data (also referred to as a file allocation unit). Files are written to a disk as groups of whole clusters.
DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode A transfer mode used by devices, including the hard drive, to transfer data to memory without involving the CPU.
EIDE (Enhanced IDE) A standard for managing the interface between secondary storage devices and a computer system. A system can support up to four parallel ATA IDE devices such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives.
external SATA (eSATA) A standard for external drives based on SATA that uses a special external shielded SATA cable up to 2 meters long. eSATA is up to six times faster than USB or FireWire.
FAT12 The 12-bit wide, one-column file allocation table for a floppy disk, containing information about how each cluster or file allocation unit on the disk is currently used.
file allocation unit See cluster.
floppy disk drive (FDD) A drive that can hold either a 5 inch or 3 inch floppy disk. Also called floppy drive.
head The top or bottom surface of one platter on a hard drive. Each platter has two heads.
high-level formatting Formatting performed by the Windows Format programAlso called OS formatting or operating system formatting.
host adapter The circuit board that controls a SCSI bus supporting as many as seven or fifteen separate devices. The host adapter controls communication between the SCSI bus and the PC.
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics or Integrated Device Electronics) A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed, as well as reducing price.
Logical Unit Number (LUN) A number assigned to a logical device (such as a tray in a CD changer) that is part of a physical SCSI device, which is assigned a SCSI ID.
low-level formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
operating system formatting See high-level formatting
parallel ATA (PATA) An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80- conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA.
PIO (Programmed I/O) transfer mode A transfer mode that uses the CPU to transfer data from the hard drive to memory. PIO mode is slower than DMA mode.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) A fast interface between a host adapter and the CPU that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices on a single bus.
SCSI ID A number from 0 to 15 assigned to each SCSI device attached to the daisy chain.
serial ATA (SATA) An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable. See also parallel ATA.
serial ATA cable An IDE cable that is narrower and has fewer pins than the parallel IDE 80-conductor cable.
terminating resistor The resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage at the end of the chain.
Zone bite recording A method of storing data on a hard drive whereby the drive can have more sectors per track near the outside of the platter.
Hard drive controller is the circuit which enables the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive.
Created by: Jay.