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Biomedicine Review2

PCOM Biomedicine Review for Level I Comps

The mnemonic Salt, Sugar, Sex refers the hormones produced by the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex. What are they? Corticosteroids (outer level), glucocorticoids (2nd level), sex hormones (3rd level)
Give an example of a corticosteroid aldosterone (tells the KD to take up sodium)
Give an example of a glucocorticoid cortisol (Olga says it prompts the release of adrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine, but book says its principal action is "to increase blood sugar via gluconeogenesis")
How is cortisol production turned on? Hypothalamus sends signal (CRH) to ANTERIOR pituitary which sends signal (ACTH) to adrenal gland.
Glucagon is secreted by the pancreas via alpha cells
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas via beta cells
What are the only tissues in the body that (store?) glucose Liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle
In starvation, would the body have elevated glucagon or elevated insulin? glucagon (in order to break down glycogen from liver for food)
In obesity, would the body have elevated glucagon or elevated insulin? insulin
The major BV ("carries more oxygen than the hepatic artery" because blood streams directly to liver from "all the GI organs, including the SI") to the liver is called the portal vein
Name the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle and where they occur. follicular (uterus), ovulation, luteal (ovary); or: menstruation, proliferative, secretory (uterus)
What organ is located "posterior and superior to" the urinary bladder? The uterus
What organ is "sandwiched between" the urinary bladder and recturm? the uterus
What does the cervix open into? the vagina
What is the average length of a menstrual cycle? 27-29 days
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron
How many nephrons in a kidney? 1.4 million
3 components of a nephron Bowman's capsule, glomerus, tubules
What does the Bowman's capsule of the KD do? collects the filtrate from the glomerus
What does the glomerus of the KD do? filters the blood
What do the tubes/ducts of the KD do? exchange ions via secretion/reabsorption
In the nephron of the KD, where is Na+ reabsorbed? in the PROXIMAL convoluted tubules
In the nephron of the KD, where is H2O reabsorbed? in the DISTAL convoluted tubules (and collecting ducts)
Where along the spine are the KDs said to be located? between T12 and L2 (right)/L3 (left)
What is the event that starts what we call menstruation? Falling levels of progesterone
Where is the cardia of the stomach the head/neck
Where is the pylorus of the stomach? the anus
Is the fundus of the stomach at the top or at the bottom? top
Is the antrus of the stomach at the top or at the bottom? the bottom
What cells produce HCl in the stomach? parietal cells
What cells produce gastrin in the stomach? G cells
What do chief cells in the stomach produce? Dr Olga says mucus. But books says "pepsinogen, gastric lipase and Chymosin"
Trace the digestive system from mouth to anus mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
What two organs does the Lesser Omentum hang between? Behind LR and ST, down and in front of LI/SI
What is notable about the Greater Omentum? it is double layer
What two organs does the Greater Omentum hang between? LR & ST and down to duodenum of SI
Match: P wave depolarization of ATRIA (A&P)
Match: Q-R-S wave depolarization of VENTRICLE (QVC)
Match: T wave repolarization of VENTRICLE (TV)
What is happening during the "Lub" or S1 contraction of the heart? AV valve is closing
What is happening during the "Dub" or S2 contraction of the heart? Mitral (aka bicuspid) valve is closing
What BV carries OXYGEN DEPLETED blood to the heart? Pulmonary artery!
If the diameter of a BV is decreaed by half, how is the volume carrying potential of the vessel affected? Decreased by 8 x 2, or 16 times
Skeletal muscle is only as strong as the individual myofibrils. Cardiac muscle, on the other hand, is only as strong as... the degree to which it stretches
The more it stretches (pre-load) the more it pumps (after load) is a summation of ... the Frank Starling law
What ions are also crucial to operation of the heart? calcium ions
What determines stroke volume in the heart? the END diastolic volume (pre-load)
Deoxygenated blood from systemic circulation enters the heart (right ventricle) via the ... superior (and inferior?) vena cava
Heart is located in the ... mediastynum
Are the ventricles in the front or the back? Ventricles in front. (Atria in back)
When an LMT does craniosacral massage, what nerves is s/he affecting? C3, 7, 9, 10 and S 2, 3, 4
If pupils are dilated, bronchi dilated, digestion turned off, heart rate up, sphincters constricted, and no erection, is this a parasympathetic or sympathetic response? sympathetic
True or False: The cerebellum system connects to the: eyes, ears, basal ganglia, spinal cord, cerebrum, and "underwear" True
Which autonomic system affects the brain and nerves C3,7, 9, 10, S2, 3, 4? The parasympathetic system
Created by: mrbarr