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28 The Repro System

The Reproductive System

Male gonads testes
System of ducts epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra
Accessory sex glands (male) seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands; secrete most of the liquid portion of semen
Supporting structures (male) scrotum and penis
Scrotum structure raphe and scrotal septum (divides scrotum into two sacs)
Scrotum function regulates temperature of the testes
Cremaster muscles contract to move testes closer to the body
Dartos muscle contract to tighten the scrotum
Testes paired oval glands in the scrotum; develop near the kidneys near the 7th month
Testes serous membrane tunica vaginalis (covers the testes) and tunica albuginea (forms septa that divides the testis into lobules)
Seminiferous tubules produces sperm; 200-300 in each lobule
Spermatogenic cells sperm forming cells; develop from primordial germ cells in the 5th week
Sertoli (sustentacular) cells tight junctions (form blood-testis barrier) and support spermatogenesis (nourish, phagocytize excess, control release into lumen, produce fluid, secrete inhibin, regulate FSH and testosterone)
Leydig cells release testosterone
Overview of spermatogenesis spermatogonia (2n), meiosis I (1n), meiosis II (1n), and spermiogenesis (1n); 65-75 days
Parts of spermatozoa (sperm) Head (holds 23 chromosomes and acrosome), tail (centrioles and mitochondria); live 48 hours
Puberty secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone increases (GnRH)
GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary to increase secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
Luteinizing hormone stimultes Leydig cells to release testosterone
Testosterone synthesized from cholesterol in the testes; suppresses LH and GnRH (negative feedback); enzyme 5 alpha-reductase converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
FSH acts indirectly on spermatogenesis; FSH and testosterone tell Sertoli cells to stimulate secretion of androgen-binding protein (ABP)
Androgen-binding protein binds testosterone keeping the concentration high
Androgens (testosterone and DHT) testosterone stimulates male pattern of development (ducts and descent of testes) and DHT stimulates development of external genitalia
Ducts of testis pressure generated by fluid secreted by Sertoli cells pushes fluid and sperm along lumen of seminiferous tubules > straight tubules > rete testis > efferent ducts in epididymis > ductus epididymis
Epididymis site of sperm maturation (motility and fertility); store sperm for months; continues as ductus deferens
Stereocilia microvilli in the epididymis that reabsorb degenerated sperm
Ductus (vas) deferens conveys sperm during sexual arousal through peristaltic contractions; an store sperm several months
Spermatic cord consists of ductus deferens, testicular artery, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, and cremaster muscle; pass through inguinal canal along with the ilioinguinal nerve
Ejaculatory ducts formed by the union of seminal vesicle and ampulla of ductus deferens; terminates in the prostatic urethra; eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions just before release of semen into the urethra
Urethra subdivided into prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and spongy (penile) urethra
Seminal vesicles 60% of semen volume; secrete alkaline, viscous fluid containing fructose, prostglandins (motility), and clotting protein
Prostate 25% of semen volume; secretes milky, slightly acidic fluid containing citric acid, several proteolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase, and seminal plasmin (antibiotic)
Bulbourethral glands secrete alkaline fluid that protects passing sperm by neutralizing acids from urine in the urethra; mucus lubricates end of penis and lining of urethra
Semen source liquid portion (seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands) and sperm (testes)
Semen composition 2.5-5mL; 50-150 million perm/mL; pH 7.2-7.7
Penis body structure corpora cavernosa penis (two dorsal masses), corpus spongiosum penis (ventral mass, surrounds urethra), and erectile tissue
Glans penis terminal opening is external urethral orifice; prepuce covers glans in uncircumcised
Erection parasympathetic stimulation results in blood vessel dilation
Ejaculation sympathetic reflex; urinary smooth muscle prevents urine from entering urethra and prevents semen from entering bladder
Female gonads ovaries
Ovaries develop around 7th month; produce gametes; produce hormones (progesterone, estrogens, inhibin and relaxin)
Broad ligament part of the parietal peritoneum
Ovarian ligament anchors ovaries to the uterus
Suspensory ligament attaches ovaries to the pelvic wall
Ovarian follicles located in cortex; consist of oocytes in different stages of development; surrounding cells nourish and secrete estrogens; follicular cells and granulosa cells
Mature (graafian) follicle large, fluid-filled follicle ready to expel secondary oocyte during ovulation
Corpus luteum remnants of mature follicle after ovulation; produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, and inhibin until it degenerates into corpus albicans
Oogenesis begins before females are born, forms from primordial germ cells that migrate from yolk sac to the ovaries; enter meiosis I during fetal development
Atresia process before birth where most germ cells degenerate
Primordial follicle each primary oocyte is covered by a single layer of flat follicular cells
400 number of primary oocytes that will mature during a lifetime; 200k-2mil at birth; 40k at puberty
Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) secreted by anterior pituitary each month to stimulate development of several primordial follciles
Primary follicles develop from primordial; surrounded by granulosa cells; zona pellucida forms between granulosa cells and primary oocyte; stromal cells being to form theca folliculi
Secondary follicles formed from primary; theca differentiates into theca interna (secretes estrogens) and theca externa (stormal cells and collagen fibers)
Granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid in a cavity called "antrum"
Corona radiata innermost layer of granulosa cells which attaches to zona pellucida
Graafian follicle mature secondary follicle; just before ovulation primary oocyte completes meiosis I; produces 2 unequal sized haploid cells (first polar body and secondary follicle)
First polar body discarded smaller cell during oogenesis
Secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but stops at metaphase
Ovulation release of secondary oocyte from mature (graafian follicle); if a sperm penetrates then meiosis II resumes; secondary oocyte splits into 2 cells (second polar body and ovum)
Uterine (fallopian) tubes (aka oviducts) transport secondary oocytes and fertilized ova from ovaries to uterus
Infundibulum end as fimbriae which produce currents to sweep secondary oocyte into the uterine tube
Ampulla widest, longest portion
Isthmus joins to the uterus
Fallopian tube histology mucosa (ciliated part functions as conveyor belt and nonciliated peg cells provide nutrition to the ovum); muscularis (peristaltic contractions); serosa (outer layer)
Uterus anatomy fundus, body, isthmus, and cervix; anteflexion position; anterior and superior over bladder
Broad, uterosacral, cardinal, and round ligaments hold uterus in place
Three layers of uterus perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium
Perimetrium part of visceral peritoneum
Myometrium 3 layers of smooth muscle; contracts in response to oxytocin from posterior pituitary
Endometrium highly vascularized; stratum functionalis (lines cavity and sloughs off during menstruation); stratum basalis (permanent, gives rise to new stratum functionalis after each menstruation)
Uterus blood supply (arise from internal iliac arteries) uterine arteries > arcuate arteries > radial arteries > branch into straight arterioles (supply stratum basilis) and spiral arteries (supply stratum functionalis)
Cervical mucus produced by secretory cells of cervix mucosa; mixture of water, glycoproteins, lipids, enzymes, and inorganic salts; more alkaline during ovulation; supplements energy needs of sperm
Vagina histology mucosa continuous with uterine mucosa (decomposition of glycogen makes an acidic environment); muscularis (2 layers); adventitia (anchors it to surrounding organs)
Hymen thin fold of vascularized mucous membrane that forms border around and partially closes vaginal orifice
Vulva (pudendum), external female genitalia mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, and bulb of vestibule
Mons pubis cushions pubic symphysis
Labia majora homologous to scrotum
Labia minora homologous to spongy (penile) urethra
Clitoris 2 small erectile bodies and numerous nerves and blood vessels; homologous to glans penis
Vestibule region between labia minora; external urethral orifice, openings of several ducted glands, and vaginal orifice
Bulb of vestibule elongated masses of erectile tissue on either side of vaginal orifice
Perineum diamond-shaped area medial to thighs and buttocks; contains external genitalia and anus
Nipples have openings of lactiferous ducts
Areola pigmented area
Mammary gland modified sudoriferous gland that produces milk; 15-20 lobes subdividing into lobules composed of alveoli (milk-secreting glands)
Suspensory (Cooper's) ligaments support the breast
Female reproductive cycle involves oogenesis and preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum
Estrogens secreted by ovarian follicles, stimulated by FSH and LH; promote development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics; lowers blood cholesterol; inhibits release of GnRH, LH, and FSH
Progesterone secreted by corpus luteum; works with estrogens to prepare and maintain endometrium for implantation and mammary glands for milk production; high levels inhibit GnRH and LH
Relaxin produced by corpus luteum; relaxes uterus by inhibiting contraction of myometrium; (end of pregnancy) increases flexibility of pubic symphysis and dilates uterine cervix
Inhibin secreted by granulosa cells of growing follicles and corpus luteum; inhibits secretion of FSH and LH
Phases of female reproductive tract menstrual, preovulatory, ovulatory, and postovulatory
Menstrual phase first 5 days of cycle; (ovaries) FSH + primordial follicles > primary follicles > secondary follicles; (uterus) declining estrogen/progesterone > release prostaglandins > uterine spiral arteries constrict > stratum functionalis sloughs off
Menstrual discharge 50-150mL blood, tissue fluid, mucus, and epithelial cells
Preovulatory phase 6-13 days; (ovaries) some secondary follicles secrete estrogens and inhibin, dominant follicle decreases FSH (so other follicles stop growing); (uterus) estrogens stimulate repair of endometrium
Follicular phase menstrual and preovulatory phases (ovarian cycle)
Proliferative phase preovulatory phase where endometirum is proliferating (uterine cycle)
Ovulation day 14-28; rupture of mature (grafian) follicle and release of secondary oocyte; high levels of estrogens exert a positive feedback effects on cells secreting LH and GnRH
Postovulatory phase day 15-28; (events in one ovary) after ovulation the mature follicle collapses to form corpus luteum because of LH
Luteal phase part of the ovarian cycle where the mature follicle collapses to form the corpus luteum
Corpus luteum if oocyte is not fertilized it lasts 2 weeks and degenerates into corpus albicans > follicular growth resumes
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by chorion of embryo after 8 days after fertilization
Cause of menstruation withdrawal of estrogens and progesterone
Created by: sibuxiang



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