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PBHS Earth Sci PltTc

PBHS Earth Science Plate Tectonics

Fastest-traveling waves departing from the earthquake's focus P-waves (Primary Waves)
Waves departing from the focus that travel slower than the p-waves S-waves (Secondary Waves)
P-waves are what type of waves Longitudinal waves
S-waves are what type of waves Transverse
Earthquakes waves originating from the epicenter are called Surface waves
Location inside the crust in which the earthquake occurs Focus
Location on the surface directly above the earthquake focus Epicenter
Minimum number of seismic stations needed to locate an earthquake 3
Method used in locating earthquakes Triangulation (intersection of 3 circles)
Instrument measuring/marking earthquake movement Seismometer
Printout made by a seismometer seismograph
Continental Drift was proposed by him in the early 1900s Alfred Wegener
Continental Drift was part of the basis of this modern day theory Plate Tectonics
Three types of plate boundaries Convergent, Divergent, Transform
Converging continental plates causes uplift/mountain building (Himalayan-India ramming into Asia)
Diverging plates cause rifts (Mid-Ocean Ridge; East African Rift)
Transform boundary movements cause earthquakes
Converging plates of unequal density (continental plate into oceanic plate) subduction of the oceanic plate (more dense)
Subduction causes volcanic mountains and trenches (Andes Mtns/Mariana's Trench)
Mount St. Helens erupted because of Subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate
Mount St. Helens is in which mountain range Cascade Mountains
The Hawaiian Islands are formed by A hot spot (weakness--area of volcanic eruption) in the Pacific Plate
Longest mountain range on Earth Mid-Ocean Ridge
Tallest Mountain in world on LAND Mount Everest in the Himalayan Mountains
A crack or break in the earth's crust along which movement can occur Fault
Movement along a crack or break (fault) in the earth's crust Earthquake
Logarithmic SCALE measuring the ENERGY RELEASED by an earthquake Richter Scale
Scale that attempts to measure the severity of an earthquake BASED ON the DAMAGE caused by it. Mercalli (Modified Mercalli)Scale
Longitudinal waves have what kind of motion push-pull; compressional (P-waves are this type)
Transverse waves have what kind of motion side-to-side; shear waves (S-waves are this type)
Secondary waves cannot travel through which state of matter? Solid
type of wave that travels through all phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas Primary waves/Longitudinal waves
Areas on Earth that receive no seismic waves due to bending of waves from traveling through different densities Shadow Zones
The San Andreas Fault is what type? Strike-slip where one block moves horizontally (sideways)past another.
Two types of surface waves Raleigh waves (rippling) and Love waves (zigzag wrenching buildings side to side)
The study of earthquakes and waves seismology
boundary between the crust and the mantle Moho Discontinuity (Mohorovicic)
Deepest solid layer of the earth inner core
layer around the solid inner core outer core
makeup and phase of matter of the inner core mostly iron and nickel, very hot solid
makeup and phase of matter of the outer core mostly iron and nickel LIQUID,
layer outside the outer core mantle
mantle description largest layer, olivine-rich rock; lower part is somewhat softened rock
Method of determining the distance from the earthquake Difference in the time of the arrival between the P waves and S waves
Tallest mountain from base to top (partly above water and partly the water) Mauna Kea (in Hawaii)
Theory proposed in the 1960a by a Princeton professor that helped bring about the theory of plate tectonics Sea-floor Spreading
Sea-floor Spreading was proposed by Harry Hess
First waves to arrive at a seismic station are which type? P waves
NEIC National Earthquake Information Center
Location of the NEIC Denver, Colorado
NEIC is part of which government agency USGS (United States Geological Survey)
nearest official seismic station to us Memphis, TN
Plate Tectonics includes which two theories? Sea-floor Spreading and Continental Drift
Moho Discontinuity is the boundary between which 2 layers? crust and mantle
The crust and upper solid mantle broken up into plates is the layer called this. lithosphere
upper, "liquid" mantle asthenosphere
the plates are "floating" on this asthenosphere
The areas on Earth that do not receive earthquake waves (seismic stations do not receive seismic waves). shadow zones
Four major types of faults at transform boundaries. normal, reverse, thrust, strike-slip
Mount McKinley is being changed to this original name given to it by the native Americans of Alaska Mount Denali
the most abundant element in the crust oxygen
the name of the core mantle boundary Gutenberg Boundary
Created by: gkarlish