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Music Technology

Final Exam Guide

any music whose primary sound sources are either electronically generated or electronically reproduced Electronic music
Formula for calculating wavelengths in both foot and meter W=S/F: 1130ft/per sec and 344m/per second for speed of sound.
Formula used to calculate the periods of sinewaves frequency- 1/f (1/p if the period is given to calculate the frequency)
define the Fourier Theorem Any complex vibration can be reproduced by adding (with proper amplitudes and phase) the harmonics of the fundamental vibration”.
The lowest fundamental pitch on an 88 key piano 27.5Hz (A0)
Doubling a given frequency raises the pitch by... 1 octave
There are (blank) cents per semitone, and (blank) cents in an octave 100, 1200
complex waves with all harmonics sounding in phase with the fundamental and at relative amplitude of the fundamental Sawtooth waves
pulse waves with a 50% duty cycle. They are complex waves with all the odd harmonics in phase with the fundamental and at relative amplitude of the fundamental. Square waves
n a complex wave, the amplitude of the harmonics is important to our perception of the sound (timbre) not the phase relationship of the harmonics. Ohm’s law of acoustics
esponsible for the commercial popularity of synthesizers in the late 60s’ through the development of modular analog synthesizers and using a piano style keyboard to control them. Bob Moog
3 types of voltage controlled modules VCO, VCF and VCA
3 examples of Control Voltages sources keyboard, The Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO), and the Envelope Generator (EG).
(originally developed at Bell Labs as a way to carry more telephone conversations on a single line) is used in music synthesis to produce bell like, clangorous sounds. Ring Modulation
the frequency component of digital audio. Sampling
in order to properly capture and encode (ADC) a sound we must have at least two samples per period (cycle) of the highest frequency you are trying to digitize. Nyquist Theorem
occurs when frequencies over the Nyquist frequency (half the sampling rate) enter into the analog-to-digital conversion process (ADC) Aliasing
the number of samples taken in 1 second Sampling Rate
he time in seconds for each sample Sampling Time
the amplitude component of digital audio Quantization
determines the quantization resolution of the digitized waveform bit-depth (word length)
the difference between the actual analog value at the sample time and the selected quantization interval value Quantization Error
ratio of the maximum expressible signal amplitude (full scale) to the maximum Quantization Error Signal-to-Error Ratio
communications protocol that allows musical instruments and computers to talk to each other using a common language and hardware interface MIDI
begin with a 1 as their Most Significant Bit (MSB). The next 3 bits of the status byte determine what the command is. Status bytes
begin with a 0 as their Most Significant Bit (MSB). Usually 2 data bytes follow a status byte and represent a value from 0-127 that is related to the MIDI command type (status byte) Data bytes
reduces the amount of MIDI data by approximately 1/3rd Running Status
measures the afterouch pressure of all notes that are being played and transmits all that data Polyphonic Aftertouch
Channel takes the afterouch value of the key that has the most pressure and sends only that data out and applies that value to all the other keys Channel Aftertouch
Pitch Bend, Aftertouch and Modulation are examples of MIDI Continuous Controller data
The transmission speed of MIDI data is... 31.25Kbaud, or 31,250 bytes/sec
In-port, Out-port and Thru-port Thru-port is directly connected to the In-port so it passes along any MIDI data present at the In-port
connects or disconnects the keyboard from its internal synthesizer Local Control
industry recognized “standard” of the MIDI protocol that states that any unit displaying the GM logo must adhere to these basic standards General MIDI 1.0
e used to store and share MIDI sequences (songs) so that they may be played back or edited on any other sequencer that supports SMF format Standard MIDI Files
It is a microprocessor with many transistors (billions) on it that handle the main computation process for the computer. Central Processing Unit
predicted that computer processing power would double every 18 to 24 months while the cost to the public would remain basically the same Moore’s Law:
program stored in firmware (ROM) that runs when a computer is first turned on. Its primary function is to prepare the machine BIOS
computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer Operating System (OS)
non-volatile storage media that contains programs that are not easily written to ROM
volatile memory, this is the most common reference when referring to computer memory RAM
Volatile memory data that is frequently used is stored in cache for rapid access. Even faster access times than RAM. Cache
Mechanical device that stores massive amounts of data on rapidly spinning magnetic disks. Typical sizes for Hard Drives are now into Tera Bytes. Hard Drive Disk
Newest form of mass memory that is replacing HDDs Solid-State Drives
a form of non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed Flash Memory
The current standard I/O connection on Mac and PCs. Will support up to 80Gbps transfer rates. PCIe (Peripheral Component Interface express)
Version 1394b supports up to 800Mbps transfer rates that makes it great for multi-channel audio interfaces. IEEE-1394 high-speed serial interface (FIREWIRE)
he next-generation of I/O developed by Intel and Apple that will most likely replace USB and Firewire in the near future. It boasts transfer rates up to 10 Gbps!! Thunderbolt
Created by: rock2fanion