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EN 245

QuestionAnswer
Edmund Spenser The Sixth Book of the Fairy Queen
The Sixth Book of the Fairy Queen is an _______ Allegory of Queen Elizabeth I
An allegory is... o Extended metaphor o Characters are usually personifications of abstract qualities o Meanings may be religious, moral, political, personal or satiric
The inventor of the first dictionary Ben Jonson
Issues with the first dictionary o Provides the correct and official spelling of words o Dictionaries have a political agenda to them  What is going to be a useful and valuable words and its meaning  And what is not
Written Epic o Reading o Printed text/creation of words o References/allusions/myths o Stanza/imagery/variety
Emblem Books o Popular at the time o Like an encyclopaedia showing pictures and importance - Tristram`s introduction reads as an emblem book
Lady Jane Grey o Elizabeth imprisoned her because she was worried she would seize the throne o Thinking in terms of allegorical qualities o Speaking to God to ask him to make her as strong as a knight o Inner armour
Spenserian Stanza o 9 line form  A B A B B C B C C  (the 9th line is called an Alexandrine because it is slightly longer than the rest and rounds out the sound) o Creation of “archaic” vocabulary
Invocation of the Muse o Creativity that is speaking, not just the poet o Action of high consequence (a people/a culture/a faith)
In Media Res always starting in the middle of things
The Blatant Beast - nasty, vicious gossip - scandalous speech
Emblematic Technique (Spenser) - Lines 1-6 present a picture - Lines 7-8 effective summary - Line 9 an explicit moral (Alexandrine)
Didactic Purpose - the text is trying to teach us something (ex. what is courtesy?)
Courtesy Politeness; civility; urbanity; courtliness An act of civility or respect; an act of kindness or favour performed with politeness Favour of indulgence, as distinguished from right; as, a title given one by courtesy
Briana Task 1 - Spenser - Loves Crudor but he refuses to return her love until she makes him a coat of human hair - Disobeys chivalry by a man imposing a quest on a woman
Crudor Task 1 - Spenser - Briana's beloved and imposes an discourteous act upon her - Loses and is reformed by Sir Calidore
Artegal Spenser - the hero of book 5, champion for Justice
Sir Calidore Spenser - Hero of book 6, champion for Courtesy
Maleffort Task 1, Spenser - Briana's steward - Killed by Calidore
Squire Task 1, Spenser - tied up for attempting to pass through Briana's narrow straight - receives the gains from Calidore's quest
Tristram (Woodsman) Task 2, Spenser - kills a knight (against chivalric code) - actions of the knight discourteous and Tristram is in the right - made a squire by Calidore, must be of noble birth - described emblematically
Unnamed Lady (Spenser) Task 2, Spenser - abused by the knight when he attempted to trade her for Priscilla - abused, forced to walk beside the horse and pushed forward with his lance - example of discourtesy towards women
Knight on Horseback Task 2, Spenser - DISCOURTEOUS - attacks another's love while he is unarmed - kills many - is killed by Tristram
Aladine Task 2, Spenser - UNARMED - with his love, Pricilla, when attacked by the knight on horseback - loves Priscilla against her family's wishes; she is betrothed to another
Priscilla Task 2, Spenser - loves Aladine - ran away from home to be with him
Sir Calepine Task 3, Spenser - loves Serena - is approached by Calidore (he interrupts their tryst) - the Blatant Beast attacks and injures Serena - he stays back to take care of her while Calidore chases the Beast
Serena Task 3, Spenser - love of Calepine - attacked by the Blatant Beast
Pastorella Spenser - raised by Sheppards (foster father: Meliboe) - actually the daughter of Sir Bellamoure and Lady Claribel - pastoral life - love triangle (Calidore/Coridon) - her beauty saves her life
Sir Bellamoure Spenser - birth father of Pastorella
Lady Claribell Spenser - birth mother of Pastorella
Colin Clout Spenser - can create worlds with his music - analog for Spenser
Meliboe Spenser - Pastorella's foster father
Brigands Spenser - abducts Pastorella - leader falls for her
Virgilian Epic written epic
Pastoral - Now he loves, he sees himself and others as safe, so “disarms” - As the previous knights, he is unprepared for discourteous interruption as he dons new clothes - All the good people die b/c Calidore refuses to wear his armour and be the courteous knig
Bellamoure and Claribell (another “illicit” love affair) o Love overcame mere codes o Thanks to Calidore they rediscover their daughter – the family is restored o Had a child, was lost (Pastorella)
Poesy - Poesy: poetry in its largest sense
Poetry and the "truth" problem - The ancients, the medieval theorists, and the Puritans of Sidney’s time were troubled that poetic works of all kinds (narrative fiction, drama, lyrics) are technically lies. They are “made up,” “untrue”
Gossen -Gossen was initially a playwright who turned to the ministry and became a clergyman. The London authorities asked him to write his evaluation of the state of theatre at the time
Poetry as "fake" o Poetry: copy of a copy of a copy (since poets do not tell truths but rather “make things up” they are, in a sense, “liars”)  Mimesis (a false, untrue, making of the world)  Inspiration, a kind of “divine madness” (force of the Muse, not the reason)
Poetry in regards to the Gods -Showing God as the author of human misery – a view not to be condoned -Plato:“true” gods are good, benevolent and truthful – and they are NOT the cause of human misery - POETS (Aeschylus) show God as cruel, vindictive and arbitrary
Aristotle on Poetics Mimesis: acting out of human actions and events - emphasis on the poet as maker/craftsman not the poet as inspired voice making it up - adds reason and purpose to the poet’s productions
Sidney on Aristotle - mimesis as a speaking picture - Sidney will add that the poet delights and brings the audience to virtue (not a new idea, just its first extended presentation in English criticism
Sidney on Historians - they are tied to facts
Sidney on Philosophers - they are tied to an argument
Sidney on Poets - they reach the "Golden World" - aim: to move men to goodness - their ability to "make" as their maker made them connects them to Divinity itself
The Poet v. The Great Maker - unlike the great maker the poet never affirms anything and therefore never lies - God: makes matter - Poets: make images (powerful enough to bring us to virtue and therefore can be equated with God)
Why "the Defense" is crucial 1. It is the first extended work of literary criticism in English 2. The formal recognition of poesy as an art form 3. The first response to Spenser's faerie queene and the Elizabethan age
Who is "The Sixte Booke of the Faerie Queene" written by? Edmund Spenser
Who is "the Defense of Poesy" written by? Sir Phillip Sidney
Who is "King Lear" written by? William Shakespeare
Three forms of Tragedy  Shakespearian tragedy • King Lear, Hamlet, Othello  Medieval tragedy • Day of Destiny  Greek tragedy • Aristotle o Oedipus Rex • Some character is suddenly overwhelmed by a Greek divinity
Freedom of Choice  Fate  To what degree is the protagonist guilty
Harmartia  Hamartia: or “miscalculation” (understood in Romanticism as “tragic flaw”)
Catharsis  Catharsis: “purgation,” “purification,” “clarification”
The Natural Order in Lear - unnatural children (out of wedlock v. under nature) - ranking children - measuring love - insubordination
Blindness in Lear - Gloucester's physical blindness (Edmund causes his eyes to be gouged out) in comparison to his blindness when trusting Edmund over Edgar - Only regains sight when blind
Madness in Lear - Lear must descend fully into madness to reclaim his sanity and realize his errors
Sport in Lear - Gloucester: the gods make sport of our misfortune - Puppets of things higher (fortune, the gods) for the sole purpose of their enjoyment
Nothingness in Lear - wisdom of folly - Cordelia - the Fool
The Sonnet Form (Basic) - 14 lines - strict rhyme scheme - Iambic Pentameter - volta (the turn) lines 8-9ish - conclusion at the end - dramatic (speaker, argument) - conclusion - rhetorically active
Petrarchian Sonnet Form A B B A A B B A
Spenserian Sonnet Form A B A B A B A B C D C D E E
Elizabethan Poets - two main trends or directions: Pastoral conventions and nature imagery
Metaphysical Poets a diverse group of 17th century poets whose work is notable for its ingenious use of intellectual and theological concepts in a) surprising conceits b) strange paradoxes c) far-fetched imagery
Cavalier poets - political poems in praise of royalty or the King - role of the cavalier, his duty to the King, his imprisonment by the Puritan forces who reject the Catholic King - Urbane, sophisticated poems to women who scorn men
Patterns in Sonnets Pattern A - First 8 = octave; Next 6 = sestet - offering an argument of problem in lines 1-7 - transition, called a “volta,” in lines 8-9 - solution to the problem in lines 10-14 Pattern B - 3 quatrains - each quatrain:an idea, an image, a comparis
Pastoral Conventions in Sonnets - about living in the countryside - Come to innocence, intimacy - Rejection of the falseness of the city, return to nature and simplicity
Metaphysical Criticism The famous criticism, later modified by T.S. Eliot, that Donne’s images are “heterogeneously yoked together by violence” is true but whereas Johnson concluded Donne violate the mimetic theory, T.S. Eliot, perhaps the greatest modern poet and critic, saw t
Created by: rawbekka