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Physiology 190 UBC

Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Epipyses The ends of a long bone
Metaphysis the part of a long bone between the diaphysis, and the epiphysis
epiphyseal plate (in children) growth plate. layer of hyaline cartilage. allows bone to gain length
ephyseal line (in adults) fused growth plate
what type of cartilage is articular , on the ends of long bones hyaline cartigage- gell line, and lines boney surfaces of joints.
the Periosteum "skin" or saran wrap on bones. contains bone forming cells, and points of attachment for tendons ligaments and capsules
medullary cavity in the middle of a long bone shaft. contains yellow bone marrow
endosteum like periosteum, but on the inside of the shaft of the bone. also contains bone forming cells
Compact bone few smaces, very strong, resistes stress. 80% of bone mass. found in long bones
spongy bone larger spaces. makes bone lighter. contains red bone marrow. 20% of bone tissue. in odd shaped bones and in epiphysis of long bones
Where do you find yellow bone marrow, and what does it do inside the shafts of long bones- and it stores fat cells
Where do you find red bone marrow and what does it do inside spongy bone. and it produces blood cells
what is an osteon functional unit of compact bone
Osteogenic cell grows into osteoblast. periosteum, and endosteum
Osteoblast Builds bone tissue, found in periosteum, and endosteum
Osteocyte Maintains bone tissue, found in lacunae
Osteoclast Breaks down bone tissue, found in endosteum, and periosteum
Histology of bone tissue 25% water, 25% colagen, 50% crystalized mineral salts
haversion canal canal in the middle of an osteon
Concentric lamellae circles of bone tissue around an osteon
interstitial lamellae lamellae around osteons
circumferential lamellae lamellae around the outer and inner edges of bone tissue
lacunae where the osteocytes live, in the bone tissue
Canaliculi The paths between lacunae
Volmann's or Perforating canals canals that run between central canals of the osteons
Blood supply to bones via the nutrient artery (nutrieng foramen), metaphyseal artery, and epiphyseal artery
trabeculae the irregular lattice of lamellae in spongy bone
Zone of resting cartilage 1st layer. Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) anchor ephiphyseal cell to epishysis
Zone of Proliferating cartilage 2nd layer. Chondrocytes undergoing cell division. Stacked in columns
Zone of Hypertophic cartilage 3rd layer. Chrondrocytes are maturing and getting bigger
Zone of Calcified Cartilage 4th layer. osteoblasts working here, to lay down ECM around chondrocytes
What stimulates bone growth hGH, human growth hormone. it stimulates oseteogenic cell activity and chondrocyte multiplication. also stimulates collagen production
Growth in width of bones osteoclasts eat the inside, and osteoblasts work under periosteum on the outside. Create circumferential lamellae
What stops bone growth increase in estrogen. Estrogen increases rate of osteoblast activity, and therefore calcifies the growth plate faster than the chondrocytes can multiply
deposition (for bones) osteoblasts working, taking minerals and proteins and turning them into bone
Resorbtion (for bones) osteoclast activity. Blood reabsorbes minerals and proteins
What happens when you load bones? they get stronger
What does vit c do for bone growth help form cartilage
what does vit a do for bone growth stimulates and supports osteoblasts
What does vit d do for bone growth need it to absorb calcium from diet
hat do you need to eat for bone growth calcium, phosphorus, vit c, k,b12, a, d
osteoporosis the thinning of the bones. caused by low estrogen, therefore especially a problem in women after menopause. hormone replacement treatment
Effects of estrogen on bone growth increases osteoblast activity, and decreases osteoclast
effect of PTH, or parathyroid hormone on bones if blood calcium is too low, body activates PTH. PTH increases osteoclast activity, and increases absorbtion of calcium from gut (via calcitriol), and prevents loss of calcium through urine in kindeys
effect of calcitonin on bones if blood calcium is too high, decreases osteoclast activty, and increases calcium deposition
What are the three types of muscles skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
striated mucles striped, skeletal and cardiac
4 properties of muscle 1)can conduct electical impulses 2)contractile 3)extensibility-stretch without damage 4) elastic- return to normal length
Superficial fascia separates skin from muscle
deep fascia epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
Epimysium connective tissue that surrounds entire muscle
perimysium connective tissue that covers muscle fascicle
endomysium connective tissue that covers the individual muscle cells
aponeurosis flattened sheets of tendons or connective tissue
tendon extension of connective tissues that attaches to bone
muscle organization muscle>fasicles>fibers(cells)>myofibril (organelle)
sarcomere contractile unit of skeletal muscle
Sarcolemma plasmamembrane of a muscle fiber
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle fiber
myofibril contractile organelle of muscle fiber
A-band length of thick filaments
I-band region between thick filaments
Z disk-name protein defines ends of a sacromere. alpha actinin (hold thin filaments in place)
M mine- name protein middle of a sacromere. myomesin-holds thick filaments in place
H zone region of a band with only thick filaments
Zone of overlap overlap of thin and thick filaments
Titin thin structural protein, elastic, and extensible
myosin thick filaments. have head and tail. heads point outward. contractile protein. two binding sites. 1) myosin ATPase 2) actin
name the regulatory proteins of muscles troponin, and tropomyosin
name contractile proteins of muscles myosin and actin
name structural proteins of muscles alpha-actinin, myomesin, and titin
Thin filaments are made of actin, troponin and tropmyosin
troponin holds think filaments together. three binding cites 1) actin binding site 2) tropomyosin binding site, 3) calcium bining site
tropomyosin cover the myosin binding sites on actin
actin has binding sites for myosin. but covered by tropomyosin. uncovered when calcium binds to troponin
neuromuscular junction between axon of motor neuron and muscle fiber
cross bridge when myosin head binds to actin
power stroke swiveling of myosin head. moves towards m-line
Events at NMJ 1) action potential arrives at synaptic end bulb 2)triggers opening of calcuim channels, and calcium enters cell 3) triggers exocytosis of acetocholine 4) ACh binds to receptors on motor end plate 5) sodium flows into muscle cell
Events at Motor end plate 1)depolarizing of muscle 2)transverse tubules depolarize 3) terminal cisternae releases calcium
components of muscle triad two terminal cisternae, and one T-tubule
excitation contraction coupling mechanism by which electrical excitation of sarcolemma is translated to mechanical contraction of muscle
AChE or Acetylcholinesterase enzyme that breaks down ACh at NMJ
Have to get calcium out of sarcolemma to prevent many contractions- how? active transport pumps take calcium back into sarcoplasminc reticulum
What happens when calcium binds to troponin myosin binding sites on actin are exposed, and myosin heads attach
Contraction Cycle steps 1) ATP hydrolysis- myosin head uses ATPase, and gets energized 2) myosin binds to actin, forms cross bridge, P group gets releases 3)release of P group starts powerstroke, mysoin swivels towards M line, ADP is released 4)new ATP binds to myosin,detach
Three sources of ATP Phosphycreatine, aerobic, and anearobic
Phosphocreatine Phosphocreatine + ADP = creatine and ATP. quick store
aerobic energy sources go through cellular res0piration in mitochondria
anerobic energy sources takes place in sarcoplasm, uses glycogen, and creates lactic acid
myasthenia gravis auto immune disease. antibodies block ACh receptors, effects NMJ
Sources of muscle fatigue 1) brain-central fatigue 2) NMJ- problems with calcium release, or depletion of NT 3)excitation-contraction coupling 4) contraction cycle of myosin.
Load-velocity relationship heavier the load, you cant lift it as fast. small load can lift faster. heaviest load, you can drop it pretty fast
Isometric contraction -muscle length stays the same while still contracting. elastic components get longer, muscle fibers shorten
Isotonic contraction either eccentric or concentric
Eccentric muscle contraction lengthening. load>force
Concentric muscle contraction shortening. force>load
Motor units one neuron and all of the fibers it innervates
Small motor units do what fine movements
large motor units do what powerful movements
motor recruitment (Henneman size principle) recruit the smaller motor units first, then go for the bigger ones as you need more force
muscle tone always some background tone. resistance training enhances background tone
hypertrophy increased muscle size
factors regulating muscle force 1)length 2) stimulation frequency 3) # fibers recruited
Type 1 fiber Slow oxidative least powerful high endurance slow speed of contraction lots of blood supply and mitochondria
Type 2a fibers fast oxidative-glycolytic middle tension middle endurance middle speed of contraction
Type 2b fibers Fast glycolytic very powerful fatigue easily fast contraction rates not many mitochondria or blood supply.
which fibers can you adapt between tybe 2a and type 2b
length-tension relationship if muscle to to slack, or two stretched, there will not be as much force because protein overlap is off
three phases of muscle twitch latent period-small delay before contraction contraction-calcium is being released by scarcoplamic reticulum relaxation period- calcium ions being actively transported back into SR
Temporal summation of muscles single twitch, wave summation, unfused tetanus, and fused tetanus
What are the divisions of the PNS- Peripheral nervous system somatic nervous system ( skeletal muscles and sensory functions), Autonomic nervous system ( internal organs, blood pressure etc), enteric nervous system (digestive tract)
afferent neural pathways, detecting internal or external stimuli sensory pathways
Inter neuron pathways, analyzing, consolidations, storing, regulating and adapting Integrative pathways- in spinal cord and brain
efferent pathways- control of muscular or glandular responses motor neurons
what is a neuroglial cell? supportive functions for the CNS and PNS
Describe a multipolar neuron dendrites attached to cell body, and long axon. most common, often motor neurons
Describe a bipolar neuron all dendrites come together, then go to cell body (not mylinated), then long axon. Specialized, like retina, or olfacory
Describe a unipolar neuron dendrites go to axon, to cell body, to axon. Often sensory neurons
Epineurium connective tissue around a entire nerve
perineurium connective tissue around a fascicle of neurons
endoneurium connective tissue around a single neuron
Describe an astrocyte part of CNS. strong, provides framework. creates strong tight junctions in epithelial cells to creat blood brain barrier
What are the four neuroglial cells in CNS Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, oligodendrocytes
Describe a microglia cell in CNS. belong to immune system. clean up cellular debris. active is there is an injury or infection of NS
Describe an ependymal cell line the ventricles of the brain, produce and circulate cerbrospinal fluid via cilla
describe the oligodendeocytes form the myelin sheath in the CNS
What are the neuroglial cells in the PNS the schwann cells. and the satellite cells
Describe a schwann cell myelin sheath of PNS
Describe a satellite cell Structural support of PNS
Describe the myelin made of proteins and lipids. provides electrical insulation, nodes of ranvier
Whats the different between gray matter and white matter White matter has meyline, gray matter has cell bodies. Cortex of brain is gray matter, inside of spinal cord is gray matter
Describe Multiple sclerosis Auto-immune disease. de-myelinating disease, so neurons loose myelin sheath
size of graded potential is related to? size of the stimulus
what is a graded potential a local or small change in the membrance potential
word for loosing strength in graded potentials decremented
where do graded potentials occur motor end plates, dendrites of inter neurons, dendrites of motor neurons, also in sensory receptors
graded potentials are mediated by what ion channel? ligand-gated, or mechanically gated ion channels for sensory receptors
greater the diameter of neuron the less the resistance
A fibers (neurons) large diameter, and myleniated, very fast
B Fibers (neurons) med diameter, and myelinated, med fast
C fibers (neurons) small diameter, and not myelinated, very slow
neurons can connect with muscles, glands, and other neurons
3 parts of synapse axon terminal, synaptic cleft, and post synaptic cell
what is the receptor for ACh cholinergic
what is the receptor for glutamine glutaminergic
what is the receptor for GABA GABA-ergic
What is an agonist (for NS) -activates receptor (drugs)
What is an antagonist (for NS) drug that inhibit the receptors
Talk about ACh -exicitatory effect on muscle, opens ligand gated ion channels, (EPSP) excitatory post synaptic potential. ACeE to remove NT
Talk about GABA IPSP- inhibitory. Main NT in CNS. opens ligand chloride channels. Reuptake takes it back in
talk about Glutamine excitatory in CNS. open up ligand gated calcium channels. reuptake
Spatial summation adding simultaneous graded potentials that occur at different sites on the cell body
Temporatl summation summation of graded potentials that occur clost together in time
general senses visceral (organs), somatic sensations (pain, temperature, tactile, proprioception)
Special senses smell, tastes, vision, hearing, blance
Exteroceptors pain/temp, Merkel disk, meissner corpuscle, ruffini corpuscle, pacinian corpuscle
Merkel superficial, small receptive field, slow adaptation
Meissner superficial, small receptive field, fast adaptation
Pacinian deep, large receptive field, and fast adaptation- get used to constant stimulus
Ruffini deep, large receptive field, and slow adaptation- dont get used to constant stimulus
Pain in felt by what receptor nociceptors- bare dendrites make up sensors
Quick sharp pain felt by what fiber? A fibers- fast
Dull aching pain felt by what fibers C fibers- slow
Ichy feeling felt by what fibers C fibers
how does NS tell the intensity of a sensory stimulus freqency, and # of neurons
Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord through which side Dorsal
Population coding depends on size of receptive field, and threshold of neuron
proprioception receptors Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindles
Spinal cord, how many cervical, throrasic, lumbar, sacral, cccygeal cervical-8, throrasic-12, lumbar-5, sacral-5, cccygeal-1
C1 spinal nerves exit where above C1 vertebrae
C8 Spinal nerve exits where above T1 vertebrae
T1 spinal nerve exits where below T1 vertebrae
2 point discrimination depends on what size of receptive field
Merkle picks up what kind of stimulus light constant pressure
Meisner picks up what kinds of stimulus light fluttering or vibrations
pacinian picks up what kind of stimulus poking or strong vibration/ tapping
Ruffini picks up what kind of stimulus sterognosis- global shape of objects
Muscle spindals pick up what kink of stimulus changes in length of muscle
Golgi Tendon Organs pick up what kind of stimulus sensitive to muscle force
Spinal cord is shorter than spine. what is the end called? conus medullaris. spinal cord finishes at L2
What is the filum terminale extension of pia matter, thread of connective tissue that holds spinal cord in place
what is the Cauda equina? horses tail spinal cord after L2. lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerve roots go out
The gap between the spinal ord and the bone is called? where fat and connective tissues are epidural space
The indent in the front of spinal cord, and the slight dent in the back are called anterior median fissure, and the posterior median sulcus
The accending and decending tracks are in the gray or white matter? white
What is a dermatome an area of skin supplied by a given spinal segment
Brachial Plexus supplies? C5-T1. upper limb
Lumbar Plexus supplies? L1-L5, lower limb. femoral nerve, and quads
Sacral plexux supplies L4-S5. sciatic nerve, posterior part of leg
stretch relfex- stimulus? receptor? effect? and how many neurons, Nt? monosynaptic- two neurons. alpha motor neuron, and 1A sensory neuron. Stimulus- muscle stretch, Receptor, muscle spindles, effect, muscle contract (remains same length). NT= glutamine
Reverse myotatic reflex. stimulus, receptor, # neurons, NT? stimulus- muscle tension, receptor- Golgi tendon organs. effect, muscle relaxes. disynapic (3 neurons)( inter neuron, 1b afferent, alpha motor. 1st nt is glutamine, second is glycine(inhibitory)
flexor and crosses extensor refeex. stimulus, receptor, effects, and neurons polysynaptic, stimulus is pain, receptor is nociceptor, effects, contralateral limb extension, and ipsilateral limb flextion
Name the five lobes of the brain Parietal lobe. frontal lobe, insula, occipital love, temporal lobe.
Name of long deep grove in the brain, separating left and right The longitudinal fissure.
What is a gyrus a "bump" in the brain
What is a sulcus (brain) groves between the gyrus
What is the central sulcus Between frontal lobe, and Parietal lobe
What is the lateral sulcus Between frontal lobe and temporal lobe
Name of the sulcus between the occipitial lobe and the parietal lobe parieto-occipital sulcus
The Precentral gyrus is also known as the? Primary motor cortex
The postcentral gyrus is also know as the? Primary somatosensory cortex
name the three types of white matter tracks association tracks, commissural tracks, and projection tracks
What is an association track? axons connecting brain regions in the same hemisphere
What is a commissural track? axons connecting same lobes in opposite hemispheres- corpus callosum
What is a projection track? Axons connecting different brain regions to other parts of the central nervous system- like brain stem. - internal capsule
What is the corpus callosum? lots of white matter, connecting left and right halfs of brain
What is the internal Capsule white matter projection track from spinal cord to cortex
what are the four things that protect the Nervous system Boney structures. Membranes, Cerobrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier
What are the meninges? Thin membranes that are located between bone and nervous tissue. 3 Layers- dura mater, Pia mater, and arachnoid membrane
What is the dura mater? 1st layer, closest to skull. Thicker, creates the falx cerbri ect.
What is the Pia mater Nice and think layer that hugs the curves of the brain, like saran wrap
What is the arachnoid mater? Between the dura mater and the pia mater. spacious almost
True or false, does the meninges continue onto spinal cord true
pia matter is also epineurium just so you know :D
What is the falx cerebri Part of dura matter that divides left and right halfs
What is the falx cerebelli. Devides left and right half of cerebellum
What is the tentorium cerebelli Separates the cerebrum and the cerebellum
Where is cerebrospinal fluid made In ventricles of the brain, specifically in the choroid plexus- ependymal cells
Where is cerebrospinal fluid found? Subarachnoid space, ventricles of the brain, and in the central canal of the spinal cord
What is the choroid plexus made of? Capillaries and ependymal cells
How is cerebrospinal fluid made? Well, the ependymal cells pump out salts into the ventricles, and water follows by diffusion from the capillaries.
Describe the flow of cerebrospinal fluid from lateral ventricles, to third ventricles, to fourth ventricles, to eitherr subarachnoid space, or to the central canal
What is the name of the channel between the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle? The interventricular foramen
What is the name of the channel between the 3rd and 4th ventricles the cerebral aquaduct
What is the name of the channel between the 4th ventricles and the subarachnoid space? the lateral apertures
What is the name of the channed between the 4th ventricles and the central canal the medial aperture
How does cerebrospinal fluid drain? there are extensions of the arachnoid mater though the dura mater, and basically the CSF travels into venous blood through a process called bulk flow- little bubbles of CFS pass through membrane
What are the names of the extensions of the arachnoid matter through the dura matter arachnoid villus
How does the CFS protect the brain and spinal cord? physical protection- shock absorbtion, buoyancy - chemical protection- high in Na+ low in K+ -Exchange of nutrients and wastes
What is hydrocephalus Blockage of the the flow of CFS
What forms the tight junctions between endothelial in the Blood Brain Barrier Astrocytes
What can get through the BBB easily? Small molecules, (like O2, CO2) lipid soluble molecules,
What does the BBB do? Chemical protection of brain- not subject to fluctuations in hormones, and ionic levels in blood
Where is the BBB weakest? By the pituitary gland, and by the vomiting center
What are the four components of the brainstem the medulla, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation
where is the medulla located? the mist inferior section of the brainstem
What are the functions of the medulla the basic survival functions. Breathing, cardiovascular functions, swallowing, vomiting, and coughing
What does the pons do? basic rhythmic pattern of breathing
What does the midbrain do? eye movements and visual reflexes (blink reflex). Auditory reflexes (startle reflex)
What is the reticular formation? a diffuse group of cells located throughout the brainstem
What is the function of the reticular formation? motor functions- muscle tone and stretch reflexes Viseral functions- breathing, BP, gasto-intestional regulation of pain perception
What is the reticular activating system? sends neurons up to cerebral cortex mediates consciousness, sleep, arousal "turns on brain" from visual, hearing or somatic senses
What is the cerebellum? little brain with half of the neurons
name the regions of the cerebellum right hemisphere, left hemisphere, and vermis (middle region)
name the lobes of the cerebellum the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe, and the flocculo-nodular lobe
What is the function of the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum? Control of movement- makes sure it is controled, and interprets it
What is the function of the flocculo-nodular lobe of the cerebellum? control of balance
What is diadochokinesia dysfunction? where people are unable to have smooth movements- cerebellum
What is dysmetria where someone has no distance perception- cerebellum
what is ataxia? where someone cant coordinate movements
What is the diencephalon? contains the thalamus, and the hypothalamus
What is the thalamus? the grand central station of the brain, it relays information to other parts of the brain
What are the components of the ventral group of the thalamus? and what do they do? the ventral posterior nucleus- somatic sensations the medial geniculate nucleus- hearing the lateral geniculate nucleus- vision
What is the reticular nuclei, and what does it do? part of the thalamus- and it integrates activity from thalmic nuclei, main filtering area
What does PCML stand for posterior column-mediated lemniscus pathway
In the PCML pathway, where does the neurons cross to other side? in the medulla
In the PCML pathway, where abouts in the spinal cord does the neuron travel up to the brain? Posterior assending tracks
The PCML pathway picks up what kind of stimulus? fine touch and proprioception
Where does a somatic sensation get relayed in the thalamys The ventral posterior nucules
What are the two sectionf of the posterior column of the spinal cord the gracile fasciculus- from lower limbs the cuneate fasciculus- from upper limbs and trunk
Pain and temperature go through what spinal tract? and where do they cross? the lateral spinothalamic tract, and cross in the spinal cord
Crude touch and pressure go through what spinal tract? and where do they cross? the anterior spinothalamic tract, and cross at spinal cord
proprioceptive info going to the cerebellum go through what spinal tract? and where do they cross the spinocerebellar tracks- and dont cross
From the thalamus, the PCML pathway goes to the primary somatosensory cortex. throu which pathway? they internal capsule
The PCMl pathway travels from the medulla to the thalamus, through which pathway? The medial lemniscuc
What are the three direct motor pathways, and what do they control? The lateral corticospinal tract- distal muscles the anterior corticospinal tract- muscles of axial skeleton the cortocobulbar tract- the muscles in the head
The indirect motor pathways start where? at the brainstem
the rubrospinal pathway controls what? arms and legs- limbs
The tectospinal pathway controls what midbrain- blink, startle, auditory
The vestibulospinal pathway controls what? the muscles of the trunk and extensors
the reticulospinal pathway controls what? the proximal limbs
What are the basal ganglia? deep areas of the brain that control movement
what is huntingtons disease hyperkinetic movement disorder- no treatment, cant get rid of extraneous movement- basal ganglia
What is parkinsons disease hypokinetic disease- basal ganglia do not have enough dopamine- treatment is L-dopa
What does the frontal lobe do? cognitive, personality, emotions, decision making, thinking, reasoning
What does the temporal lobe do? hearing
What is the role of the hippocampus? memory consolidation, takes short memory and turns into long term memory
What is anterograde amnesia? the inability to make new memories
What is retrograde amnesia forgetting memories already formed
Language processing is on what side of the brain? the left
Broca's area is primarily for what coordinating the motor output for speech, and for writing.
What is expressive (non-fluent) aphasia? can understand what people are saying, but cant form words back- broca's area
What is Wernicke's area primarily for? the interpretation of language- recieves visual and auditory input.
What is receptive (fluent) aphasia cant understand what people are saying to them- talk in word salad
What side of the brain is spacial skills? right
What does the occipital lobe do? vision
What does the insula do? taste and smell
what does an association area do? applies meaning to the actual function
Created by: bphipps



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