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Patho Respiratory Sy

primary function is to obtain O2 from the air and deliver it to the lungs for exchange with CO2 and to the blood for distribution Respiratory System
coughing, sneezing, talking, and singing Secondary functions of the respiratory system
small air sacs in the lungs thin walled sacs surrounded by blood capillaries the site for O2 and CO2 exchange Alveoli
an oily lubricant that bathes the inner surfaces to reduce the surface tension in the lungs Surfacant
a waste product of cellular metabolism CO2
the main muscles of inspiration, or inhalation diaphragm and the external intercostals
other muscles that assist exhalation abdominal and internal intercostal
the lungs are encased by a double membrane consisting of two layers called pleura
in between the pleura is the pleural cavity
acts as a vacuum and prevents the lungs from collapsing intrapleural pressure
the entire respiratory tract is lined with a mucous membrane called epithelium
hair like projections cilia
exert a sweeping action, preventing dust and foreign particles from reaching the lungs cilia
protects the lungs by moistening and warming inhaled air starting in the nasal cavity mucous membrane
dyspnea labored breathing
tachypnea rapid breathing
hemoptysis coughing blood
cyanosis blue color in skin and nails
oscillometry a new test available to those as young as two years old
distinguish patients who have persistently narrowed airways versus a confirmed diagnosis of asthma oscillometry
a key indicator of respiratory function arterial blood gases
sputum examination is helpful in the evaluation of pneumonia, TB, and malignancies
gram stains and cultures are useful in identifying causative organisms, determining proper antibiotic treatment, and diagnosing TB and fungal lung infections
permits visualization of the lungs and diaphragm during respiration bronchoscopy, chest x-rays, and fluoroscopy
air filled spaces that reduce the weight of the skill and contribute resonance to the voice sinuses
sinus cavities are referred to as paranasal sinuses
frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinus cavities
sinusitis inflammation of the mucous membrane linings which causes pressure, pain, and often a headache
ethmois sinus inflammation is more common in children
etiology of sinusitis viruses, bacteria, and allergens
results in painful headaches and facial swelling chronic sinusitis
noncancerous growths in the nasal or sinus passageway nasal polyps
the most common sleep disorder obstructive sleep apnea
interruption or hesitation of the normal breathing cycle during sleep is called apnea
the incidence is highest among middle aged overweight males sleep apnea
caused by a sensitivity to airborn allergens hay fever
triggers respiratory mucosa to secrete excessive mucus allergens
the most prevalent chronic condition in patients under age 18 hay fever
infections of these tissues lead to difficulty swallowing and redness and pain in the throat area tonsis, pharynx, and larynx
masses of lymphatic tissue embedded in the lateral mucous membranes of the midsection of the oropharynx palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy removal of the tonsils and pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
may contribute to short term pharyngitis foreign objects, hot liquids, or spicy foods
characterized by a red, purulent soar throat strep throat
characterized by hoarseness or aphonia laryngitis
causes laryngitis in young children croup
a viral infection of the upper respiratory system influenza
symptoms include - chills, fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, chest pain, muscles aches, and gastrointestinal disorders influenza
chief among flu complications pneumonia
particularly serious in the elderly and chronically it, as well as young children influenza
common cold, sinusitis, nasal polyps, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, hay fever (rhinitis), tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and laryngitis upper respiratory diseases
chronic bronchitis, chronic asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and pneumoconiosis lower rrespiratory diseases
irritants such as industrial fumes, automobile exhaust, viruses, and bacteria can cause bronchitis
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi that can be acute and chronic
more serious in small children, the chronically ill, and the elderly acute bronchitis
characterized by chest pains, dyspnea, cough, fever, and sometimes chills acute bronchitis
sputum may contain pus acute bronchitis
indicated by coughing with sputum production lasting for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years chronic bronchitis
more common in middle aged men than women chronic bronchitis
there is excessive secretion of mucus from the mucous glands of he bronchial mucosa lining chronic bronchitis
mucous glands hypertrophy, and the mucosa itself is thickened and inflamed chronic bronchitis
hypoxia insufficient oxygenation of the tissues
may be a complication of another respiratory infection chronic bronchitis
can result from long term exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoking, or a complication of another infection chronic bronchitis
the flue or a common cold exacerbate chronic bronchitis
one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide asthma
bronchial asthma chronic inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles
a disabling and debilitating disease caused by a restriction or obstruction emphysema
lungs lose their elasticity, and the lungs become filled with air that is high in CO2 emphysema
symptoms - suffocating feeling, inability to breathe unimpeded, and intense pain emphysema
atelectasis a collapsed or airless condition of the lung
pneumothorax a collectivon of air or gas in the pleural cavityspirometer
spirometer an instrument that measures the movement and volume of air in and out of the lungs
a barrel chest emphysema
a stethoscope placed on the chest detects abnormal respiratory sounds called rales
right side of the heart is weak, the blood is less saturated with O2 and cyanosis emphysema
an inherited disease that affects the exocrine glands cystic fibrosis
the most serious manifestation of cystic fibrosis is in respiratory system
symptoms - dyspnea, wheezing, persistent cough, and thick sputum cystic fibrosis
a common complication of cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis
brochiectasis a sequela or residual effect of chronic inflammation and congestion
most death involve younger adults and occur as a result of respiratory failure cystic fibrosis
lack of proper fat digestion results in a large, bulky, foul smelling stool cystic fibrosis
a hereditary disease that manifests in young children cystic fibrosis
transmitted through a recessive gene cystic fibrosis
sweat glands excrete excessive perspiration and large amounts of salt cystic fibrosis
confirms cystic fibrosis sweat test
blockage of pancreatic duct prevents secretion of digestive enzymes and inability to digest and absorb nutrients cystic fibrosis
recurrent respiratory infections, abnormal mucosal lining, inability to clear thick mucus cystic fibrosis
electrolyte imbalance, abnormal salt excretion cystic fibrosis
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a COPD caused by dust particles that infiltrate or embed into lung tissue pneumoconiosis
symptoms - SOB, wheezing, and low physical endurance pneumoconiosis
dust usually the result of industrial mining of coal and stone or milling of grains or environmental activity like asbestosis or volcanoes pneumoconiosis
an acute inflammation of the lungs in which air spaces in the lungs become filled with an inflammatory exudate pneumonia
typically runs in seasonal or cyclical patterns pneumonia
symptoms - dyspnea, fever, chest pain, and a productive cough pneumonia
listening to lung activity, a chest x-ray, and analysis of sputum can diagnose and determine its cause pneumonia
inflammation of a section, often an entire lobe of the lung lobar pneumonia
Created by: 507927425
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