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MP - Lecture 28

Pulmonary Circulation

Medical Physiology – Lecture 28 Pulmonary Circulation
Left atrial pressure is estimated by: Pulmonary wedge pressure
Pulmonary vascular resistance is ___ than systemic resistance. Much lower
Pulmonary vascular resistance has ___ regulation. Little autonomic (autoregulation)
If pulmonary arterial pressure increases, pulmonary vascular resistance ___ and flow ___ substantially. Decreases, increases
In the lung, small pressure change results in: Large cardiac output change
A large increase of flow in the lung produces: small change in pulmonary arterial pressure
In the brain, flow is: constant over a wide range of arterial pressures (autoregulation)
In tissues that autoregulate, increases in pressure produces: Small changes in flow and increased resistance
Lung regulation is done by two passive mechanisms: Recruitment and distension
Gravity causes pressure to ___ as you go up the lungs. Decrease
Zone 1 of Lung No flow
Zone 2 of Lung Low to moderate flow
Zone 3 of Lung High flow, high pressure
Hypoxic Vasoconstriction Low alveolar PO2 triggers local vasoconstriction to divert blood to better ventilated parts of lung
Hypoxic vasoconstriction occurs only in: Pulmonary circulation
Resistance is at a minimum when: Lung volume = FRC
Effect of lung volume on pulmonary vascular resistance: Increase or decrease in lung volume increases vascular resistance
Pulmonary vascular resistance increases with lung volume decrease or increase because: Alveolar and extra-alveolar pulmonary blood vessels
Alveolar Blood Vessels Capillaries and small arterioles and vessels
Extra-Alveolar Blood Vessels Larger arterioles, arteries, and veins
Lung volume increase causes alveolar vessels to: Stretch, increasing resistance
Lung volume decrease causes extra-alveolar vessels to: Decrease radial traction, increasing resistance
An increase in alveolar resistance or extra-alveolar resistance causes overall resistance increase because: Pulmonary vessels are in series
Hydrostatic Pressures of Pulmonary Capillaries Lumen = 7, ISF = -8
Colloid Osmotic Pressure of Pulmonary Capillaries Lumen = 28, ISF = 14
Net driving force of pulmonary capillaries: +1 outward (towards ISF)
Capillary lumen leaks fluid through ___ to ___. Endothelial layer to ISF
ISF edema’s effect on gas exchange is: Minimal, diffusion distance still small
Alveolar edema’s effect on gas exchange is: Severe impairment, fluid occupies space where O2 normally does
Causes of pulmonary edema: Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (left heart failure), capillary permeability increase (poison gas), loss of pulmonary surfactant, high altitudes, lymphatic insufficiency, and heroin overdose
Pulmonary circulation removes: Serotonin, prostaglandin E2/F2a, and leukotriene
Function of ACE in pulmonary metabolism: Convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and deactivate bradykinin
Created by: emyang