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Bio Chem Final

Review Questions for Second Half of Term

Name the 3 components of a nucleotide. A nitrogenous base (either a purine (dbl ring structure) or a pyrimidine (single ring structure)), a sugar (monosaccharide), and a phosphate group (PO4)
The general structure of an amino acid is ... An amine (NH2) group on one end, a carboxyl (or carboxylic acid) group on the other end, and an "R" group in the middle!
If an amino acid chain is 4 or greater sub-units, it is called a ... polypeptide
Name 3 true things about glutathione. It IS a tripeptide. It IS found freely and abundantly in the cytoplasm. It IS a potent antioxidant.
A peptide bond forms via ... dehydration synthesis
Which two amino acids contain sulphur? Cysteine and methionine
A polypeptide "immediately" (??) produced by a ribosome has a _______ structure (might want to review slide on this. wording seems awkward) primary
Name the 3 forms of RNA messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA (which is the ribozyme, I think!)
RNA has many functions within cells. DNA has really only one function. What is it? to store the genetic code
True or False: Purines contain a single nitrogen ring, and pyrimidines have a double ring. False (the opposite is true)
cAMP stands for cyclic adenosine monophosphate. It is used in the cell for... regulating cellular metabolism
The folding of proteins does not include which of the following elements? Carbon-nitrogen bridges
Name the 4 nitrogenous bases used to make DNA. ACTG
Name the 4 nitrogenous bases used to make RNA. ACUG
Which pair of molecules bond to form the "back bone" of a nucleic acid? Sugar and phosphate
Describe the basic role of messenger RNA. To bring the genetic information out into the cytoplasm to make proteins.
True or False: ALL enzymes require ATP to perform their functions. False!! (enzymes that merely "flip" the antiomerism or chirality of a protein require NO energy)
True or False: Enzymse catalyze biochemical reactions by specificity and reaction rate. (??) True
An enzyme is mostly composed of ... Protein in a tertiary structure
Many factors allow enzymes to be functional. Which one is not a factor? "Ribose sugars?"
What ARE the factors that enable or prevent enzymes to/from performing their functions? Temperature, pH, chirality, presence/abscence of substrate/cofactrs
True or False: A product of an enzyme splitting a molecule is called a substrate. False
When the proper cofactors are present, an enzyme will function normally. This is called: holoism
True or False: Enzymes only cleave molecules, never link molecules. False
What role does a coenzyme play in catalysis? It donates part of its structure to the molecule
Prosthetic groups are a type of cofactor. Which of the following is NOT a prosthetic group? (the one that's not a metal)
When sufficient product has been made by an enzyme, the enzyme will be deactivated. Which process below describes this? a negative feedback loop
Glutathione reductase is an enzyme that does all of the following but... remove sulphur
The cytochrome p450 series of enzymes are very useful. Which is not one of their functions? exacting specificity
True or False: Induction or inhibition of the cytochrome p450 enzyme, crucial to cellular detoxification, can sometimes cause severe drug side effects. True
Translation... describes a process where a polypeptide chain forms from messenger RNA codons.
Transcription... is the reading of the DNA code by the RNA polymerase and a complementary, "antiparallel" (RNA) is formed.
An error in DNA transcription causes... mistranslation of proteins
Which molecule is used in abundance to fuel protein synthesis? ATP
What does an RNA polymerase do? It transcribes RNA from DNA.
These molecules keep DNA and chromatin compact. histones
True or False: Nucleic acids are made from long protein back bones False (they are made from a phosphate+sugar backbone)
Why does the cell want to conserve its DNA? To prevent errors from entering into DNA code
True or False: In DNA replication, the topoisomerase untwists the DNA double helix. True
Aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase is an enzyme used for... Reloading specific amino acids to their corresponding tRNA
True or False: tRNA carries a 3-base codon True
Which statement about DNA is false? (DNA does NOT pass through the ribosome)
Three or the following are true of the active site of the ribosome. Which one is not true? The TRUE ones are: Ribosomes are made from complexes of RNAs and proteins. Ribosomes are divided into two subunits (30 & 50). The ribosome moves along the mRNA, "reading" its sequence and producing a corresponding chain of amino acids. ("translation")
What comes first in the entire protein synthesis process? transcription of the DNA
True or False: When mRNA is translated, only one ribosome works on the strand at a time. False (multiple ribosomes work on the same mRNA)
Glycolysis and _______ provide most of the carbon products for aerobic respiration. beta oxidation
Which of the following does NOT happen during pyruvate decarboxylation? (no ATP is produced-- just one NADH and one CO2)
True or False: In a manner of speaking ("in a generalized way"), the Krebbs Cycle is really just the oxidation ("oxidizing") of carbon. True
True or False: The purpose of the Electron Transfer Cycle is to produce electrons to enter into the Krebbs Cycle. False
How does the enzyme ATP Synthetase power its ability to make ATP? Concentration gradients (of H+) are established between the intermembrane space (lots of H+) and matrix (little H+) that make the hydrogen ions want to move from one to the other.
True or False: Glycolysis must take place within the cytoplasm, and aerobic respiration must take place within the mitochondrion. True
Which of the following is true of the mitochondrion? Cells with lower energy needs generally have fewer ("only a few") mitochondria.
The fluid filled regions/areas of the mitochondrion are the matrix and the intermembrane space. True
Vitamins are important cofactors. Which is not a vitamin? Coenzyme lipoamide
Which molecule is the most abundant by-product of the Krebbs cycle? NADH
What is the primary waste product of both Krebbs and pyruvate decarboxylation? CO2
What happens when there are insufficient cofactors available in the body (malnutrition)? Enzymes cannot work efficiently
True or False: Acetyl coenzyme A is the only molecule that replenishes carbon in the Krebbs Cycle. True! (the one instance where his ONLY/NEVER/ALWAYS restrictive language is actually true!)
True or False: The four steps of aerobic respiration take place within the cell nucleus. False (they take place within the mitochondrion)
The Electron Transport Chain is located in the mitochondrial: cristae (inner membrane)
When a hydrogen atom is represented by the letter H, as it often is in biochemistry, this means: This is an electron and a proton
The Electron Transport Chain's basic function is to: Transport electrons through the membrane proteins, which then produce H+ ions
Complexes I and II contribute what to the Electron Transport Chain? electrons
True or False: Ubiquinol, in Complex III, is quickly broken down and deficiencies of ubiquinone can develop very quickly. False (they are constantly recycled)
The intermembrane space is the store house for what in particular? Hydrogen ions (H+)
Why is the concentration gradient between the matrix and intermembrane space so useful? It allows for a huge potential energy difference, measured as pH
What is the function of the Fe-S clusters in Complex I, II and III? They transport electrons
When ubiquinone is converted into ubiquinol, what takes place? Ubiquinol transports electrons, via H2, to Complex III
Cytochrome c transports electrons between: Complexes III and IV
True or False: In addition to moving electrons, Complexes I, III and IV also pump out H+ ions into the intermembrane space. True
The end of the Electron Transport Chain at Complex IV means that electrons: Are acted upon by copper (Cu), reacted with O2 and released as water
ATP Synthetase phosphorylation is powered by: The pool of H+ ions concentrated in the intermembrane space
ATP Synthetase enzymes produce ATP. If the entire four-step aerobic respiration system is perfectly efficient, how much ATP is produced from one glucose molecule? 38
Created by: mrbarr