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Computer History

Computer History Final

-Pascaline -Renaissance -Add/Subtract Blaise Pascal
-Algebra of True/False George Boole
-The Bombe -Colossus -Enigma -Lorenz Machine -Father of Artificial Intelligence -The Turing Machine Alan Turing
Slide Ruler William Oughtred
Stepped Reckoner -Like Pascaline but also Multiply/Divide Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Jacquard Loom Joseph Marie Jacquard
All logical statements can be formed using only AND/OR/NOT Ludwig Wittgenstein
Company developed Key-Set machine William Seward Burroughs I
Differential Analyzer Vannevar Bush
-Defference Engine -Analytical Engine -Industrial Revolution Charles Babbage
-Analytical Engine -First Programmer -Daughter of Lord Byron Lady Ada of Lovelace
-Census Tabulating Machine -Tabulating Machine Company Herman Hollerith
Vacuum Tube Lee de Forest
-Instrumental in directing his company from firearms to adding machines -E. Remington and Sons Philo Remington
-ENIAC -EDVAC -UNIVAC -U of Penn -Too late for WWII Presper Eckert and John Mauchly
-Programmer on Harvard Mark I -Helped develop UNIVAC -Debugging -Testing -COBOL Grace Hopper
Programmer of ENIAC Jean Jennings Bartik
Microprocessor Ted Hoff
Father of "information theory" Claude Shannon
Atanasoff-Berry Computer -Iowa State U -Conflict with Eckert and Mauchly John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry
-Z1-Z4 -Zuse KG Konrad Zuse
-Harvard Mark I -Conflict with IBM Howard Aiken
Thomas Watson, Jr. IBM President
-Transistor -Bell Labs William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain
-Integrated Circuit -Texas Instruments Jack Kilby
-Integrated Circuit -Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Robert Noyce
-Stored programs -Conflict with Eckert and Mauchly -Describe modern computer architecture John von Neumann
-Dualism - Human body acts as a machine; the mind does not. Rene Descartes
-Logic Programming -The Deductive Method John McCarthy
The Father of the World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee
-Point-and-Click -GUI Interface -User-Friendliness -PARC-XEROX Clarence Ellis
-Mosaic -Netscape Marc Andreesen
-Microsoft -MS-DOS/PC-DOS -Internet Explorer -Windows Bill Gates
-Microsoft -Wrote the BASIC interpreter for the Altair 8800 Paul Allen
-Apple -NeXT -MacIntosh Steve Jobs
-Apple -the Engineer Steve Wozniak
-Origins are in Babylonia -Standardized in China Abacus
-Greece -Used in Astronomy and Astrology Antikythera Device
-Add/Subtract -Built to help Pascal's father in his accounting business Pascaline
Handheld Calculator Slide Ruler
Added Multiplication and Division to Pascal's machine Stepped Reckoner
Solved Polynomials Difference Engine
Solved any type of math problem Analytical Engine
Used in 1890 Census with redesign was used by railroad companies Census Tabulating Machine
-Used to decode Lorenz machine encrypted messages during WWII at Bletchly Park, England -Part of Ultra Secret Colossus
Was to be used to calculate trajectory tables during WWI but was too late ENIAC
The machine after ENIAC that had stored programs EDVAC
First commercially available computer from Eckert-Mauchly corporation (with large funding by Remington Rand) UNIVAC
-Designed and commissioned by Howard Aiken -Actually built by IBM -Used by US Navy Harvard Mark I
-Can be used for amplification and switching -Not reliable; burns out easily Vacuum Tube
-replacement for vacuum tubes -more reliable -Made initially with germanium but soon afterward silicon Transistor
Many transistors and other components brought closely together on a single chip Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit that performs the operations of the CPU Microprocessor
Electromechanical device used to calculate trajectories for the US during WWII Differential Analyzer
-A weaving machine -Had punched cards to denote a particular pattern Loom
-Adding machine that allowed one to set all keys then add by pulling a lever Key Set Machine
Electromechanical computer developed at Iowa State U Atanasoff-Berry
Early machine used to break the Enigma code during WWII The Bombe
-The encrypting machine used by the Ggermans during WWII -3 rotors The Enigma Machine
-The encrypting machine used by the Germans during WWII -7 rotors The Lorenz Machine
German computer done mostly in isolation Z1-Z4
-Batch operations -time-sharing using terminals IBM Mainframes
Considered the first personal computer Kenbak-1
Considered the first successful personal computer(complete and out-of the box) Apple II
Set the standard for personal computing IBM-PC
William Seward Burroughs I -American Arithmometer Company -Burroughs
William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain AT&T Bell Labs
Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Ted Hoff Intel
helped fund the UNIVAC Remington Rand
-Mark Andreesen -Evolved from Mosaic Netscape
-Jeff Bezos -Pierre Omidyar -Some of the first e-commerce companies Amazon; Ebay
-Bill Gates, Paul Allen -involved in a legal battle with Netscape which almost led to the company being split. (Monopolgy issues) Microsoft
-Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak -Apple I, II, III, Lisa, and MacIntosh Apple
-Pong -2600 -Video game crashes of 1977 and 1983 Atari
UNIX workstations; Solaris; Java Programming Language SUN
The number of transistors that can fit onto a chip doubles every two years Moore's Law
Body acts like a machine, following the law of nature; mind acts differently Dualism
Innovation; financial mania; crash; golden age Creative Destruction
1983; Filmed during the beginning of the home computer revolution; addressed themes such as hacking, artificial intelligence, and technology as more powerful than man. (War dialing, Stanislav Petrov) War Games
1957; Non-science fiction movie about computers. Funded by IBM Desk Set
1902; First moving picture that envisioned space travel Le Voyage Dans La Lune
1726; first possible mention of a computer-like device in literature (The Engine) Gulliver's Travels
Qubits Nanotechnology
1979; 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G Cellular Networks
World War II Radiophones
1880; the Photophone Alexander Graham Bell
Transfer of information between points that are not physically connected Wireless Telecommunications
Same decision-making capabilities as a human expert. (Watson.) Expert Systems
Golem, Hephaestus, Galatea, Asimo, Topio Robotics
Robo-ethics; Machine ethics Ethics
Intelligence; Consciousness; Can the computer be made to think and is the human brain just a computer? Philosophy
First opportunity to harness a power to perform computations Steam
Nanotechnologies; quantum computer Carbon
Semiconductor Germanium
Semiconductor; more abundant than germanium Silicon
Better method than steam; electricity travels approximately one foot in a nanosecond Electricity
Hand powered calculating devises Hand Crank
Area formulas Egyptians
Algorithms Middle East (Islamic Influence)
Decimal System Chinese
Zero Indians
Education, Cryptography Romans
Logic Greeks
Consistent alphabet Phoenicians
Place value (base 60) Babylonians
Cuneiform Sumerians
Painting; caring; counting sticks Pre-mechanicial
Abacus; Antikythera Device; Pascaline; Slide Ruler; Stepped Reckoner; Difference Engine; Analytical Engine; Key-Set Machine Mechanical
Census Tabulating Machine; Differential Analyzer; Atanasoff-Berry Computer; The Bombe; Colossus; Z1-Z4; Harvard Mark I Electromechanical
Pascal; Oughtred; Leibniz Renaissance
Babbage; Lady Ada; Boole; Jacquard; Wittgenstein Industrial Revolution
Herman Hollerith; Lee de Forest; Burroughs; Remington Electrical Age
Atansoff, Berry The Great Depression
Turing; Zuse; Bush; Eckert and Mauchly; Hopper; Aiken; Bartik; Shannon; Zuse; von Neumann World War II
Shockley/Bardeen/Brattain; Kilby; Noyce; Hoff; Watson The Space Race
Mainfram; Minicomputer; Microcomputer; Home Computer; Apple II; IBM-PC Home Computing
Amazon; Ebay; Henry Bodgett The Dot Com Era
Created by: 660555605