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Spicer, MB Final

Microbiology Final, concepts, Spicer, Bastyr

QuestionAnswer
Which characteristics of this tract make it harder for pathogens to live there? Highly acidic (stomach) or alkaline (bile, sodium bicarbonate in intestine). Large volumes of normal microflora. Regular peristaltic scraping of the walls of the tubing. Anaerobic environment.
Why could viral gastroenteritis kill a child? Usually self-limiting within a few days, but can be fatal in infants due to dehydration.
How can viral gastroenteritis be transmitted? Infected humans via fecal-oral route; contaminated water & shellfish. Airborne transmission has been identified in hospital outbreaks.
Mode of transmission for Type A Hepatitis: Fecal-oral, person to person, infected food handlers, fecally contaminated food and water. This is a “fast food” borne illness that you may hear about in the news.
Clinical course for Type A Hepatitis: Abrupt onset, mild S/S lasting for a week or 2 (although it can become disabling and last several months).
Potential for chronicity for Type A Hepatitis: There is no chronic infection, and the liver recovers from the infection in almost every case.
Mode of transmission of Type B Hepatitis: Sexual or household contact with infected person or carrier; vertical transmission during birth; contaminated needles: drug injection, tattooing, accidental needle sticks.
Clinical course of Type B Hepatitis: Gradual onset; severity ranges from no S/S to fulminant (rapidly progressing) fatal cases.
Potential for chronicity of Type B Hepatitis: Chronicity occurs, leading to cirrhosis or carcinoma.
Transmission of Type C Hepatitis: Usually blood-borne via needles; uncommon via sexual transmission. In some cases, no correlation between blood exposure & infection can be made.
Clinical course of Type C Hepatitis: Insidious onset, with 50–80% of cases going chronic.
Potential for chronicityof Type C Hepatitis: May lead to loss of liver function (cirrhosis), or carcinoma
Transmission of Type D Hepatitis: Exposure to infected blood and body fluids; contaminated needles; sexual transmission.
Clinical course of Type D Hepatitis: Co-infection with Type B hepatitis is required. Usually has an abrupt onset
Potential for chronicity of Type D Hepatitis: May progress to a chronic and severe disease.
Transmission of Type E Hepatitis: Similar to Type A
Clinical course of Type E Hepatitis: Also similar to Type A
Potential for chronicity of Type E Hepatitis: No evidence of chronicity.
For which types of viral hepatitis can you be vaccinated? Types A, B, D.
Which bacteria cause gastric ulcers? Why are they unusual? Helicobacter pylori. Organism is usually acid resistant (loves pH 1.5).
How is Campylobacter transmitted to humans? Contact with animals (poultry, cattle, sheep, swine, rodents, baby pets); ingestion of contaminated food or water.
Why is cholera so deadly to the human body? If fluids are not replaced, rapid dehydration can cause death.
How are the transmission patterns and clinical course of EHEC and ETEC infections alike? Different? Transmission: Both fecal-oral route. ETEC also via contaminated food and water.
Compare clinical course of EHEC and ETEC: EHEC: May be fatal due to potent cytotoxins. ETEC: This diarrheal disease hits children in developing countries very hard. Dehydration is always a concern, due to lack of access to clean water & salts for rehydration therapy.
Is there any normal flora in the blood: There are no normal flora in blood, but name some circumstances which create transient bacteremia.
how does flora get into blood: Dental extractions. Wounds. Bites. Damaged mucosa: intestine, lungs, genital tract.
What does HIV stand for? HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
What does AIDS stand for? AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
What is the difference between “HIV” and “AIDS” diagnosis? HIV is the positive presence of the retrovirus which infects immune cells. AIDS is the result of HIV when the CD4 T cell count dips below 400.
Name all of the transmission routes for HIV infection. Exchange of body fluids: Sexual contact (semen or vaginal fluid). Contaminated needles, syringes (blood). Contaminated transfusions (blood or blood products). Childbirth (vertical transmission via blood). Breastfeeding (milk).
What is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis? Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Name signs & symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. S/S: may be asymptomatic, or look like an acute viral disease: Fever. Intensely sore throat (pharyngitis); may look like strep throat. Lymphadenopathy, especially posterior cervical lymph nodes. Splenomegaly (sports are contraindicated). Fatigue.
Why are physical activities contraindicated if you have infectious mono? Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen) makes physical activities like sports a major risk factor.
Name the vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Infected ticks.
Describe 3 distinct stages of Lyme disease: Early, distinctive “target” (Bulls eye) red skin lesion at the site of the tick bite. Early systemic problems: fatigue, chills, fever, headache, stiff neck, myalgias, arthralgias; may have lymphadenopathy. CNS abnormalities months later: aseptic meningi
Vector of Lyme disease: Infected tick.
Name the bacteria responsible for plague: Yersinia pestis
Where is plague endemic in the U.S.? Currently, plague is endemic in resistant wild rodent populations throughout the western United States.
Name the protozoans responsible for Trypanosomiasis: Infected Tsetse fly (African) The bite of reduviid bugs. (American)
Name the protozoans responsible for Malaria: Plasmodium vivax, Vector: Infected female mosquito.
Transmission of Malaria: Infected female mosquito.
Clinical course of Malaria: Characteristic cycle (24 – 72 hours). Genitourinary & CNS:
Where is normal flora located in the urinary system? Only the distal end of the urethra should contain bacteria, yeasts, or viruses. These organisms don’t normally invade the bladder, due to periodic flushing by acidic urine.
Where is normal flora located in the reproductive system? Reproductive system: This system should be free of organisms in both genders. Exception: Vagina has different microflora, depending on the stage of sexual development.
When does the potential for a urinary tract infection (UTI) exist? Poor personal hygiene; Sexual intercourse; Insertion of catheters; Infrequent urination.
How are the signs & symptoms of upper UTI different from lower UTI? S/S of lower UTIs: Dysuria, urgency, frequency of micturition; cloudy urine (pus, bacteria, blood). S/S of upper UTIs: Pyelonephritis causes a fever in addition to lower urinary tract S/S.
S/S of lower UTIs: Dysuria, urgency, frequency of micturition; cloudy urine (pus, bacteria, blood).
S/S of upper UTIs: Pyelonephritis causes a fever in addition to lower urinary tract S/S.
Which bacterium is usually responsible for UTI?: E. coli
Name the 5 epidemic sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and note which are viral, which are bacterial. Viral STDs: 1) Anogenital herpes/genital herpes 2) Genital warts Bacterial STDs: 3) Chlamydia 4) Gonorrhea 5) Syphilis
Which STDs can be spread via direct contact with mucous membranes?: Anogenital herpes/genital herpes Genital warts Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis
Which STDs can be spread via direct contact with Exposure to blood? Blood: Syphilis
Which organisms cause Syphilis: Treponema pallidum
Which organisms cause AIDS: HIV
Which organisms causeCondyloma Acuminatum: human papillomaviruses (HPV);
Describe the picture of viral meningitis: Viral: “aseptic” meningitis, because sometimes the pathogen cannot be detected (up to 50% of cases). It tends to be less severe than bacterial cases.
Describe the picture of Bacterial Meningitis: This is a medical emergency. Death may occur within a few hours.
Which organisms cause bacterial meningitis? Note the age distributions. Haemophilus influenzae (kids) Neisseria meningitidis (adolescents) Streptococcus pneumoniae (elderly adults).
Which organism causes meningitis in kids: Haemophilus influenzae
Which organism causes meningitis in adolescents: Neisseria meningitidis
Which organism causes meningitis in elderly adults: Streptococcus pneumoniae
Which organism causes Botulism: Clostridium botulinum
Which organism causes Tetanus: Clostridium tetani
Where is Clostridium botulinum found in nature (when it’s not inside a human)? Anaerobic environments. Ex: improperly canned food
Sx, Bulls eye rash, (maybe) fatigue, flu like s/s chills fever myalgias Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Tick
Sx, Fever and chills in regular cycle, malaise, headache, nausea. Important regular cycling of symptoms. Malaria, Plasmodium vivax, tick
Sx: Unilateral, bilateral swollen parotid glands, serious complications in some adults Mumps, Paramyxo virus,
Sx: Pharangitis, severe fatigue, fever, lymphadenopathy, enlarged spleen, young adults and adolescents are more at risk for self limiting illness. Mononucleosis, Epstein barr virus,
fever, rash and history of tick bite. centripetal, or "inward" pattern, appears 2–5 days after the onset of fever and is often very subtle. Most often it begins as small, flat, pink, non-itchy spots (macules) on the wrists, forearms, and ankles. Rocky mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia rickettsii
painful, swollen lymph glands, called buboes, commonly found in the armpits, groin or neck.} Bubonic plague, Yersina pestis, fleas
early, acute stage, symptoms are mild and usually produce no more than local swelling at the site of infection chronically infected individuals will still eventually develop life-threatening heart and digestive system disorders. Trypanosoma cruzi: tsetse fly or assassin bug
What causes Botulism: Clostridium botulinum
What causes Polio: poliovirus
What causes Tetanus: Clostridium tetani
What causes West nile fever: West nile virus
What causes Rabies: Rabies virus
Etiologic agent for Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Tick
Sx Lyme Disease, Sx, Bulls eye rash, (maybe) fatigue, flu like s/s chills fever myalgias
Etiologic agent for Malaria Plasmodium vivax, tick
Sx Malaria Fever and chills in regular cycle, malaise, headache, nausea. Important regular cycling of symptoms.
Etiologic agent for Mumps Paramyxo virus,
Sx:Mumps Unilateral, bilateral swollen parotid glands, serious complications in some adults
Etiologic agent for Mononucleosis Epstein barr virus,
Sx of Mononucleosis Sx: Pharangitis, severe fatigue, fever, lymphadenopathy, enlarged spleen, young adults and adolescents are more at risk for self limiting illness.
Etiologic agent for Rocky mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii
Sx Rocky mountain spotted fever: fever, rash and history of tick bite. centripetal, or "inward" pattern, appears 2–5 days after the onset of fever and is often very subtle. Most often it begins as small, flat, pink, non-itchy spots (macules) on the wrists, forearms, and ankles.
Etiologic agent for Bubonic plague Yersina pestis, fleas
Sx Bubonic plague painful, swollen lymph glands, called buboes, commonly found in the armpits, groin or neck.}
Etiologic agent for trypanosomiasis: Trypanosoma cruzi: tsetse fly or assassin bug
Clostridium botulinum causes what disease: Botulism
poliovirus causes what disease: Polio
Clostridium tetani causes what disease: Tetanus
West nile virus causes what disease: West Nile fever
Rabies virus causes what disease: Rabies
Sx of trypanosomiasis: early, acute stage, symptoms are mild and usually produce no more than local swelling at the site of infection chronically infected individuals will still eventually develop life-threatening heart and digestive system disorders.
Sx West Nile fever: one of three different outcomes in humans. The first is an asymptomatic infection; the second is a mild febrile syndrome termed West Nile Fever;[4] the third is a neuroinvasive disease termed West Nile meningitis or encephalitis.[
Sx Botulism appear 8 - 36 hrs after eating contaminated food. NO fever with this infection. Abdominal cramps, Breathing difficulty, respiratory failure. Difficulty swallowing and speaking. Double vision, Dry mouth, Nausea, Vomiting, Weakness with bilateral paralysis
Sx Tetanus: mild spasms in jaw muscles (lockjaw). spasms in chest, neck, back, and abdomin. Back muscle spasms causing arching. Diaphragmic and accessory muscle spasms w breathing problems.
What is Tetany Sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups. This is called tetany.
Sx polio: There are three basic patterns of polio infection: subclinical infections, nonparalytic, and paralytic. About 95% of infections are subclinical infections, which may not have symptoms.
Paralytic Sx of Polio: Fever 5-7 days before symptoms. Abnormal sensations Bloated feeling in ab. Breathing difficulty Constipation Difficult urination Drooling Headache Irritability, temper Muscle contractions, spasms, pain in the calf, neck, or back
Incubation period of Rabies The actual time between infection and when you get sick (called the "incubation period") ranges from 10 days - 7 years. The average incubation period is 3 - 7 weeks.
Sx Rabies Swallowing difficulty (drinking causes spasms of the voicebox) Drooling Anxiety, stress, and tension Convulsions Exaggerated sensation w pain at the bite site Excitability Loss of feeling Loss of muscle function and spasms Low-grade fever
Sx chlamydia: Asymptomatic similar to gonorrhea. Burning during urination, Discharge from the penis or rectum Testicular tenderness or pain Painful intercourse Symptoms similar to hepatitis Vaginal discharge
Sx Gonorrhea: appear 2 - 5 days after infection, may take up to a month to appear. Asymptomatic Burning urination ^ urinary frequency, urgency Discharge, penis Red, swollen urethra Tender, swollen testicles Sore throat (gonococcal pharyngitis) Vag discharge
Primary Sx Syphilis: Chancre -- a small, painless open sore or ulcer on the genitals, mouth, skin, or rectum that heals by itself in 3 - 6 weeks Enlarged lymph nodes in the area containing the chancre
Secondary Symptoms of Syphilis: Secondary syphilis symptoms include: Skin rash which often involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Moist, warty patches may develop in the genitals or skin folds. These are called condylomata lata.
Sx meningitis: Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include: Fever and chills Mental status changes Nausea and vomiting Sensitivity to light (photophobia) Severe headache Stiff neck (meningismus)
Created by: bastyr41