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SB82 Cardiac Surgery

SB82 Cardiac Surgery - loosely taken from Fiser's ABSITE review

QuestionAnswer
Right to left cardiac shunts cause _______. Cyanosis
A shift from left-to-right shunt to a right-to-left shunt is a sign of increasing pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension, and is known as __________. Eisenmenger's syndrome
This condition, if left untreated, can cause polycythemia, strokes, brain abscess, endocarditis, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy Cyanosis
The first sign of CHF in children is ________. Hepatomegaly
Left to right cardiac shunts cause _____, clinically manifested as failure to thrive, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hepatomegaly. CHF
_____________ is a connection between the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery. Ductus arteriosus
________________ is a connection between the portal vein and IVC. Ductus venosum
Ductus venosum causes blood to be shunted away from the _____ Liver
Ductus arteriosus causes blood to be shunted away from the ________ in utero. Lungs
The most common congenital heart defect _______ VSD
VSDs usually close spontaneously by age ____________ Six months
Medical treatment for symptomatic VSD is ______ and _____. Diuretics digoxin
Indications for repair of VSD CHF resulting in failure to thrive, PVR > 4-6 Woods units
Contraindication to repair of VSD PVR > 10-12 Woods units
Most common congenital defect causing ASD _______ Ostium secundum
Eighty percent of osmium secundum is caused by ___________ PFO
Medical treatment for symptomatic ostium primum defects is ______ and _____. Diuretics digoxin
Anomalies that contribute to oxygenation with ASD Anomalous pulmonary venous return to right atrium or IVC, or IVC connecting to left atrium
This congenital cardiac anomaly is more inferior to the other, more common, cardiac defect causing ASD _______ Ostium primum
Ostium primum is caused by deficiency in left horn of the _______________ Sinus venosus
Ostium secundum becomes symptomatic when Qp / Qs is greater than ______________, resulting in CHF Two
Adults with unrepaired ostium primum defects can get ________ and __________ paradoxical emboli, arrhythmias
Ostium primum defects usually become symptomatic when Qp/Qs > 2, causing ________, ___________ and ____________ fatigue, dyspnea, recurrent infections
Tetralogy of Fallot includes which congenital defects? Overriding aorta, VSD, pulmonary HTN, and RV hypertrophy
Most common congenital defect resulting in cyanosis _________ Tetralogy of Fallot
Morphologic abnormality causing Tetralogy of Fallot Anterior and superior displacement of infundibular septum
Medical treatment for Tetralogy of Fallot is _____________ Beta blockade
This type of shunt can be used for palliation to dely repair of Tetralogy of Fallot Blalock Taussig
Tetralogy of Fallot should be repaired when this sign occurs ____ Increased cyanosis
Definitive repair of Tetralogy of Fallot includes these three steps Division of RV outflow tract obstruction (pulmonic stenosis), patch enlargement of outflow tract, VSD repair
The most common cyanotic disorder presenting during the first week of life is _________ Transposition of the great vessels
In Transposition of the great vessels, mixing of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood most often occurs through ___________ ASD
Medical treatment of Transposition of the great vessels includes ____ Atrial septostomy and PGE1
In patients with Transposition of the great vessels and large VSDs, significant CHF and pulmonary HTN may occur by this age ______ three months
Optimal timing of repair in transposition of the great vessels, and technique Early (first 2-3 weeks of life), switch with posterior implantation of coronary arteries
Patients with Transposition of the great vessels and _________ are NOT candidates for early switch LVOT obstruction
Patients with Transposition of the great vessels and LVOT obstruction should be treated with this intervention _________ Blalock Taussig shunt
Timing for repair of large symptomatic VSD prior to school age
Test to see if large VSD is reversible, and therefore amenable to repair Trial of vasodilators
Indications for repair of ASD include Qp / Qs > __________ 1.5
What percentage of ostium primum defects require repair? 100%
What is the timing of ASD repair? Before school age
Created by: StudyBug82