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IFTSA College Bowl I

What does it mean for data to be accurate? the data is close to the true value for the measurement
What does it mean for data to be precise? Data points are close together
What does HPLC stand for? High Performance Liquid Chromatography or High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
What does GC-MS stand for? Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
What is the purpose of GC-MS? To separate volatile compounds and identify them based on mass/charge ratios
What is the Isoelectric Point? The pH where the sum of charges (+ and -)is equal to 0 for an amino acid/protein
Why do you not want the pH of frankfurters to be at an isoelectric point of myosin? the product will not be able to bind water and you cannot form a gel, etc.
What is meant by sensitivity in a biological assay? magnitude of a change of an analytical instrument w/ changes in compound concentration
What are three forms of water in foods? Free Water,Adsorbed Water (loosely bound), and water of hydration (tightly bound)
What is the definition of pH? -log [H+]
When does buffering occur in foods? When a weak acid and a salt (its conjugate base) are present in the same food
When does the maximum buffering capacity occur in a food product? At the pKa, the point where equal amounts of the undissociated acid and weak base (salt) exist in the food matrix
If you have a method that you want to use to measure % fat in a product and it is not AOAC approved, how would you determine if it is accurate? Take known fat percentages and run them with the method to perform a standard curve so that you can determine the linear range of your method and assure its accuracy
What does AOAC stand for? Association of Official Analytical Chemists
Will a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid from animal fats with the same number of carbons have a higher melting point? Saturated fat
Vitamin C is sometimes added to frankfurters, why? To enhance the rate of cured color formation in the frankfurter It sounds good to have Vitamin C on the label
Why is summer sausage shelf-stable? pH is near the isoelectric point of myosin and actin
What are myosin and actin? the major contractile proteins in muscle (accounts for ~65% of contractile proteins)
Name 3 items that effect water activity in a food product. solute concentration,moisture concentration, &temperature
What is an emulsion? A system containing 2 immiscible liquids
Are frankfurters an emulsion? Not a true emulsion because they have more than 2 components in them. However, they do have lipid separated from water by myofibrillar proteins
What is a kjeldahl apparatus used for? To measure net proteins in foods
What is a Foss-Let analyzer used for? To measure % fat
How would you measure oxidation in meat products? Thiobabituric acid (TBA) analysis
The TBA analysis is a colorimetric reaction; what does this mean? the analyte of interest does not have a chromaphore and must react with a substance so that a chromaphore is created and absorbance can be read to determine the concentration of an analyte
Why is absorbance generally used in spectroscopy experiments instead of transmittance? absorbance has a linear relationship with concentration based on Beer's Law; transmittance does not have a liner relationship w/ concentration
What is spectroscopy? production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter
What type of HPLC utilizes a polar column and a less polar solvent (stationary phase)? Normal Phase HPLC
What term does the acronym PSE abbreviate? Pale, Soft, and Exudative
What is the predominant meat source that PSE occurs in? Pork (and one could argue for turkey)
What meat protein is primarily responsible for color in meat products? myoglobin
Why are caseinates good functional ingredients in a number of processed food products that have both water and fat? caseinates have amphiphilic structure; this means that these protein derivatives both have regions that are hydrophobic and hydrophilic
How many grams of HCl are needed in 1 Liter of distilled, deionized water to produce 1 molar HCl? 36.45 grams
What does FID stand for? Flame Ionization Detector
what characteristic of compounds is usually utilized to separate compounds in gas chromotography? molecular weight
what CHO is only naturally produced in milk? Lactose
how many significant figures is in the number 0.000401? 3
what is the maximum % of fat that you can legally have in a cooked sausage product? 30%
what are the minimum reactant requirements for maillard browning? amino-bearing compound (usually a protein) a reducing sugar water
what food product is B-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin found in? milk
what food product is glycinin and conglycinin the main proteins in? soy protein
someone has suggested that you use sucrose in your confectionary product where Maillard browning is desireable, will this cause a problem? yes, because sucrose is a non-reducing sugar
why is sucrose added to dough when making bread? it increases viscosity & increases foam stability
what is the definition of essential amino acids? amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be present in the diet
does volume increase or decrease when a solid goes to a liquid? increases
does volume increase or decrease when a liquid goes to a gas? increases
why is titratable acidity an important measurement in food products? it predicts the acid's impact on flavor in a food product
is a pectin a CHO, a Protein, or a fat? Carbohydrate
what is pectin utilized for in food chemistry/food processing? stability of jams, jellies, fruit juices, tomato sauces, etc.
what is the amount of heat required to raise the temp of one gram of water one degree Celsius? Calorie
what is the unit commonly used in expressing energy values of foods? Kilocalorie
what are the fat-soluble vitamins? A,D,E,K
what are the water-soluble vitamins? B vitamins,C
what are the 2 minerals that humans require the most? Calcium & Phosphorus
what are the chief deficiencies of Calcium and Phosphorus? Bone and Teeth Disease
what vitamin is formed in the skin of humans and animals by activation of sterols by UV light from the sun or by UV activation of sterols artificially? Vitamin D
Vitamin D increases _____and______from the intestinal tract and is necessary for their efficient utilization. Calcium & Phosphorus
what are good sources of Vitamin D? Fish oil, liver,dairy products, eggs
What vitamin is essential for normal blood clotting? Vitamin K
what are the good sources of the Vitamin B complex? yeast,liver,bran of cereal grains
what is another name for Vitamin E? Tocopherol
What are good sources of Vitamin K? green vegetables such as spinach and cabbage
what is the disease caused by a deficiency of thiamin, and is common where polished rice is a major dietary item? Beriberi
What vitamin is a strong antioxidant and probably functions as such in human metabolism? Vitamin E
What common food preservative chemical destroys the vitamin activity and should not be used to preserve foods that are major sources of thiamin? Sulfur Dioxide
What is the sum of the processes involved in taking in food nutrients and assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide nutrition; a foundation for life and health? Nutrition
What is the polysaccharide that is the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver, with lesser amounts in muscle tissue? Glycogen
What are the nitrogen-bearing compounds that form the structural units of protein? amino acids
what is a blood condition characterized by a decreased number of circulating RBCs, hemoglobin, or both? Anemia
what is the botanical term for certain plants belonging to the mustard family, such as broccoli and cauliflower, so-called because of the cross-like leaf markings? Cruciferous
what are the various complex proteins produced by living cells that act independently of these cells. They are capable of producing certain chemical changes in other substances w/o themselves being changed in the process? Enzymes
The process by which a chemical compound is split into other simpler compounds by the elements of water, as in manufacture of infant formulas, to produce easier-to-digest derivatives of the main protein (casein) on the cow's milk base... Hydrolysis
Compounds that consist of one molecule of fatty acid esterified to glycerol are called? monoglycerides
what are the small protrusions from the surface of a membrane: finger-like projections covering mucosal surfaces of the small intestine? Villi
what are any of the conducting cells of the nervous system called? neurons
what is the class of compounds of low molecular weight that yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis? peptide
what is the sum of all the various biochemical and physiologic processes by which the body grows and maintains itself (anabolism) and breaks down and reshapes tissue (catabolism)? Metabolism
Lecithins are structurally like fats but contain what? phosphoric acid
what are the biological catalysts that promote a wide variety of biochemical reactions? enzymes
what enzyme is found in saliva promotes digestion or breakdown of starch in the mouth? amylase
what enzyme is found in gastric juice promotes digestion of protein? Pepsin
what enzyme is found in liver that promotes breakdown of fats? Lipase
what types of acids are found in apples, grapes, oranges, and lemons? apples have malic acid, grapes have tartaric acid, oranges & lemons have citric acid
What are the main natural antioxidants found in foods? lecithin, vitamins C and E, certain sulfur-containing amino acids
what pigment imparts green color to lettuce and peas? chlorophyll
Plants that contain no vitamin A but contain its precursor called what? Beta Carotene
what pigment gives the orange color to carrots and corn? carotene
What B vitamin's main responsibility is in the utilization of CHO to supply energy, where it functions as the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate, or cocarboxylase, in glucose oxidation? Thiamin
what pigment contributes to the red color of tomatoes and watermelons? lycopene
what pigment contributes to the purple color grapes and blueberries? anthocyanins
True/False: Riboflavin is quite resistant to heat but very sensitive to light and this is why brown milk bottles have seen limited use in the past True
what pigment gives the red color to meats? oxymyoglobin
True/False: a complete protein is one that contains all of the essential amino acids in amounts and proportions to maintain life and support growth when used as the sole source of protein True
(___)proteins are generally not as high in biological values as animal proteins because of amino acid limitations Plant proteins
what type of proteins can be supplemented w/ the missing essential amino acids either in the form of synthetic compounds or as protein concentrates from natural sources? Incomplete proteins
What are the organic chemicals, other than essential amino acids and fatty acids, that must be supplied to an animal in small amounts to maintain health? Vitamins
what is the only major vitamin the human body that is known to be capable of manufacturing but may not be synthesized in adequate amounts? Vitamin D
True/False: Vitamins function in enzyme systems, which facilitate the metabolism of proteins, Carbohydrates, & fats True
Vitamins B and C's absorption by the body depends on the normal absorption of fat from the diet. False
What vitamin naturally occurs only in animal materials such as meat, milk, eggs, and the like? Vitamin A
what is the Recommended Daily Allowance for thiamin (depends on age and gender)? 1-1.5 mg/day
True/False: Thiamin is not stable to heat in acid foods, but less so in neutral and alkaline foods. False, thiamin is heat stable
What causes the yellow-green pigment of skim milk and whey? Riboflavin
True/False: riboflavin functions in the oxidative processes of living cells and is essential for cellular growth and tissue maintenance. True
What are good sources of riboflavin? liver,Eggs,& Milk
A deficiency of what vitamin adversely affects tissue respiration and oxidation of glucose and results in the disease known as pellegra in humans? Niacin
True/False: the adult Recommended Daily Allowance is 13-20mg/day for niacin, depending on age and gender. True
True/False: Niacin is very stable to heat, light, and oxidation, but like other water-soluble vitamins, it can be leached from foods during processing and cooking. True
What is the name of vitamin B6? pyridoxine
What B vitamin is called the anti-pernicious anemia factor and is important in nucleic acid formation and in fat and Carbohydrate metabolism? B12
What is the name of vitamin B12? cyanocobalamin
True/False: cyanocobalamin is the largest vitamin molecule and contains cobalt in its structure, giving rise to an essential requirement for the mineral cobalt in nutrient. True
True/False: vitamin B12 is not synthesized by bacteria and molds and is a commercial by-product of antibiotic production False
what vitamin is responsible for the prevention of certain kinds of anemias, is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids, and is synthesized by microorganisms? Folacin (or folate/folic acid)
What is a TTC test? What is it used for? 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride test. this test is used for detection of antibiotics in milk
for milk, what does titratable acidity refer to? what terms is it expressed in? titratable acidity is natural acidity (from udder. Due to casein, phosphates, albumin, CO2, citrates) plus the real acidity (microbial acidity; ie. conversion of lactose to lactic acid). It is expressed in terms of % lactic acid.
What is catabolism and anabolism? catabolism is breakdown of complex organic molecules releasing energy. Anabolism is synthesis of cell constituents from simpler molecules, usually requiring energy.
What kind of emulsion system does butter have? butter has a water in oil emulsion, where water is in dispersed phase and oil is in continuous phase
what does SPME stand for in analytical chemistry? Solid Phase Micro Extraction
what does AOAC stand for? Association of Official Analytical Chemists
name the major components of dietary fiber cellulose,pectin,lignin,hemicellulose,hydrocolloids
what state does the milk protein casein occur in milk, and what is its Zeta potential? casein occurs in colloidal dispersion phase in milk. Its zeta potential is about 18mV
what is the pH range of the indicator phenolphthalein? 8-9.6
what is the wavelength range of UV-Vis spectroscopy? 200-700nm (UV=200-350nm, Vis=350-700)
what is BOD, COD, and what are their units of measurement? Biological Oxygen Demand,Chemical Oxygen Demand; both are measured in mg/liter
What type of compounds is flame photometric detector (FPD) specific for? FPD is specific to compounds containing sulfur groups
What is the difference between free water, adsorbed water, and water of hydration in foods? Free water retains its physical properties and is available for reaction. Adsorbed water is held tightly to proteins. Water of hydration is the chemically bound water.
what does ELISA stand for, and what does it detect? Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay its an immunological or biochemical test to detect desirable and undesirable substances.
What are myoglobins? What are its 3 forms? Myoglobins are pigments responsible for color of meats. The 3 forms are: metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and dexoxymyoglobin
Anthocyanins are pigments responsible for what colors, and in what type of foods? Red, blue, and purple colors of some flowers, fruits, vegetables, juices, wines, etc.
what is boiling point elevation? the temp at which the vapor pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure (760nm)
What is amino acid score (uncorrected) The ratio of mg of amino acids in 1g of test protein to the mg of amino acid in 1g of reference protein.
what is PSE in reference to meat? Pale, Soft, and Exudative. It is due to excess production of lactic acid. Most of it is contributed to stress and rigor
what are isotonic solutions? solutions which has same osmotic pressure at same temp
what should be the size of milk fat globules after homogenization? < or equal to 2 microns
which amino acids are indispensable? Phenylalanine,Valine,Threonine,Tryptophan,Methionine,Histadine,isoleucine,Lysine,Leucine
What are colligative properties? physical properties of a solution that depend entirely on number of solute molecules present in the solution and not upon the chemical nature of the solute. Ex. vapor pressure, osmotic pressure, boiling point, freezing point
Name the lean and primal cuts of pork Lean cuts: ham, loin, boston butt, and picnic Primal cuts: the above along w/belly
what is regression analysis? statistical method to analyze a relation between 2 or more variables such that one of them can be predicted by using information on others.
explain bacterial soft rot spoilage caused by Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas marginalis. They break down pectins, giving a soft mushy consistency, bad odor at times in foods like carrots, onions, garlic, etc.
What are crustaceans? invertebrates characterized by a hard outer shell and jointed appendages and bodies. They usually live in water and breathe through gills. Higher forms of this class include lobsters, shrimp, and crawfish; lower forms include barnacles, and fish lice.
What are the essential amino acids? Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Histadine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine
what are enantiomers? compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures. Are mirror images of each other. may be designated D or L, depending on their configuration
explain D value the decimal reduction time, or the time required to destroy 90% of microorganisms
what are vitamis D2 and D3 better known as? vitamin D2: ergocalciferol. vitamin D3: cholecalciferol
what is the chemical name of enzyme lactase? Beta-D-galactosidase
what is pyrolysis? dehydration and fragmentation of sugar molecule. AKA carmelization. it is responsible for browning and burnt flavor
what is proteose peptone? is an enzymatic digestion of animal tissues. commonly used in the prep of culture media for the production of toxins, and in the fermentation industry for starter cultures. It is a highly nutritious source for the growth of a wide range of microorganisms
what is penaltemate carbon? the asymmetric carbon farthest from the functional group
what is lactulose, and how does it influence bifidus production? lactulose is an anomer of lactose formed during high heat treatment. It stimulates growth of bifido bacteria that provides immunity to infants. It helps cure GI disorders.
What are exopeptidases and endopeptidases? exopeptidases are enzymes that cleave amino acids or dipeptides in a stepwise manner from terminal end of protein. Endopeptidases are proteinases that hydrolyze linkages within the peptide chain, and don't touch the terminal peptide bonds.
what are carotenes and xanthophylls? classes of carotenoids. Carotenes are purely poly-ene hydrocarbons while xanthophylls contain oxygen in form of hydroxyl, epoxy, or oxo group
explain "surimi" a stabilized myofibrillar (myosin and fibrils)protein from fish muscle
what is labeled magnitude scaling? it is a category ratio scale that generates data similar to magnitude estimation. It uses unequal, quasi-logarithmic spacing of verbal labels such as barely detectable, weak, moderate, strong, very strong, and strongest imaginable.
what is protopectin? a component of cementing material between plant cell wall. In fruits, it is converted to pectin as fruit matures.
what pigments cause yellow, red, and green colors in plants and vegetables? yellow is due to carotene, green is from chlorophyll, and red is due to lycopene
what are catechins? flavonoid phytochemical compounds that appear predominantly in green tea. Smaller amounts of catechins are also found in black tea, grapes, wine, and chocolate.
the structure of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contains which metal? Copper
what is the difference between zero order reaction and 1st order reaction? in zero order reaction, rate is independent of the concentration of reactant(s). 1st order reaction has a rate proportional to the concentration of one of the reactant(s).
if the total plate count is 500 CFU/ml, with the generation time of 30 min., what will the total plate count be after 3 hours? 32,000 CFU/ml
what is the color of typical Salmonella colony on EMB agar? colorless
in the US, what is the maximum amount of fat allowed in frankfurters? 30%
in the US, what is the maximum amount of combination of fat and water allowed in frankfurters? 40%
According to the federal regulations, what food product open dating terms is required for frankfurter packages? A.sell by, B.use by, C.best if used by, or D.none of the above none is required. product dating is voluntary and not required by federal regulations
what is the name of the crop species resulting from a plant breeder's cross between wheat and rye? Triticale, which is the combination of the scientific names of the two genera involved: Triticum (wheat) and Secale (rye)
What is the eutectic point? Temp where solid and liquid phase of a material exist in equilibrium
from a food safety standpoint, what temp range is considered "the danger zone"? 40-140 degree F (4.4-60 degree C)
what are the approximate annual estimates for numbers of foodborne illnesses and deaths in the US? 47.8 million illnesses, and 3037 deaths in 2011
arrange these foodborne pathogens in the increasing order of their approximate onset time of symptoms due to infection or intoxication: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio cholerae Staphylococcus aureus (2-4hr), Clostridium perfringens (6-12hrs), Vibrio cholerae (18-36hrs), Listeria monocytogenes (1-30 days or more)
in predictive food micro, growth rate is calculated by linear or non-linear regression on "log of counts vs. time plot". which model cannot be used for calculating growth rate: A.logistic model, B. Arrhenius model, C.Gompertz model, D.baranyi model? Arrhenius model
what do these abbreviations related to shellfish toxins stand for? PSP, DSP, NSP, ASP PSP=Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning,DSP= Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning,NSP= Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning,ASP= Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
A food sample was analyzed for aerobic plate count by diluting 100 and 1,000 times separately. the # of colonies on plate w/1:100 dilution was 240 with 1:1,000 was 35. What is the exact aerobic plate count of the food sample? (240+35) X 100/(1X1 + 0.1X1)= 25,000 CFU/ml
who was the 1st woman president of IFT? Mary K. Wagner
what are cryoprotectants? substances that protect against the dehydration which destroys structure and texture caused by freezing.
What is the commercial source of starch? cereal grains
what is starch retrogradation? realignment (crystallization) of the amylose and amylopectin to form a pocket.
which enzymes are used for corn syrup production? alpha amylase and glucoamylase
define kinetic viscosity ratio of absolute viscosity and density
Name 3 foodborne pathogens that are responsible for more than 75% of human deaths caused by known pathogens in the US Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma. Followed by norwalk-like viruses, campylobacter, and E. coli O157:H7
Name the foodborne pathogen that has the highest mortality rate Vibrio vulnificus (50% fatality rate)
of the following pathogens, which one was recognized even 30 years ago: campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Cyclospora cayetanensis? Bacillus cereus
What do the Grashof number, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, Biot number, and Fourier number all have in common? they are all dimensionless
prior to refrigeration, what was the primary method used for food preservation? Fermentation
define the following acronyms relating to government agencies USDA, TTB, DHHS, FDA USDA: United States Department of Agriculture TTB: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau DHHS: Department of Health and Human Services FDA: Food and Drug Administration
the USDA classifies eggs into 2 different sets of categories, one based on quality and another based on size. Name the 6 categories that eggs can be categorized in based on size? Jumbo, Extra Large, Large, Medium, Small, Peewee
Individuals who are extremely sensitive to the compound PROP are called what? super-tasters
at which pH does the indicator phenolphthalein turn from colorless to red? 8.2-8.3
which of the following is NOT a method used to determine the fat content of a food: A. soxhlet extraction, B. mojonnier extraction, C.goldfish method, D.karl fischer karl fischer
name 4 of the 6 primary classes of pathogenic E. coli that cause diarrhea Diffuse-adhering (DAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC),enterotoxigenic (ETEC),Enteroinvasive (EIEC),Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC),Enteroaggregative (EAEC)
which of the following elements is found in a molecule of the pigment xanthophyll but not in a molecule of betacarotene: nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon oxygen (this is the difference between betacarotene and retinol/al)
Rio, Marsh White, and Ruby Red are all varieties of which fruit? Grapefruit
In which decade did Harry Streenbock of the University of wisconsin find that irradiating foods w/ultraviolet light increased their Vitamin D content? 1920's
what is the official name of the act that made sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States? Volsted Act
what is the genus and species of the Thompson seedless grape? Vitus vinifera
In Russian, what is the meaning of the word Vodka? little stream
the prolamin hordein can be found in which cereal grain? barley
name the disease resulting from copper toxicity? Wilson's disease (inborn err of metabolism)
what are the 4 P's of the marketing mix? Product, Price, Promotion, Place
the protein efficiency ratio (PER) is based on the comparison of the weight gain of rats fed a test protein to those fed what controlled protein? casein
what act, which was passed in 1990, made nutritional labeling mandatory on most food products under FDA jurisdiction? Nutritional Labeling and Education Act (NLEA)
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seafood Inspection Program insures the safety and quality of seafood consumed in the US. This agency can be found in what government department? Department of Commerce
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is enforced by which government agency? EPA
match the following alcohols with the drink they are most commonly associated with. Alcohols: whiskey, vodka, tequila, and gin. Cocktails: martini, bloody mary, bloody maria, manhatten whiskey=manhattan,Vodka= Bloody Mary,Tequila= Bloody Maria,Gin= Martini
which was the 1st food product used as the reference protein (standard which to measure the quality of other proteins)? the egg
what does the acronym PDCAAS stand for? Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (compares the amino acid content of a protein w/human amino acid requirement and corrects for digestibility)
which are the 2 essential fatty acids for human beings? Linoleic (omega 6) and linolenic (omega 3)
what is amelioration as it refers to wine making? alteration of the sugar concentration, total acidity, and/or pH of musts
what is levulose, a common monosaccharide found abundantly in honey, saps, and fruits more commonly known as? Fructose
a pH value is a measure of acidity. what is a pKa value the measure of? acid strength, which are measured by titration
what is an enantiomer? two stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images (stereoisomers are compounds w/the same molecular formula but different arrangement)
in enzymatic reactions, what is "activation energy"? the energy required by the reactant to reach transition state from the ground state
what is "margarine disease" (AKA Planta Disease)? allergic reaction to the emulsifier "ME18", which is added to margarine to keep fat from spattering during frying.
which fungus is responsible for producting the etiologic agents of aflatoxicosis? Aspergillus flavus
what is the difference between the envelopes (everything outside the plasma membrane) of gram positive and gram negative cells? Gram positive cells have a single thick peptidoglycan or murein layer, while gram negative cells have a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by an outer membrane
many fungi are dimorphic. what does dimorphic mean? they can change from a yeast form to a mold form
what is BT corn? genetically modified corn that contains a gene taken from Bacillus thuringiensis (a bacterium); the gene allows the plant to manufacture a protein crystal that is toxic to certain insects
what is BHT? Butylated hydroxytoluene; phenolic antioxidant used to preserve fats and oils
what is BGH? Bovine Growth Hormone: regulates growth and milk production
When was E. coli O157:H7 first recognized as a human pathogen? 1982 (during investigation of 2 outbreaks of bloody diarrhea in Oregon and Michigan)
what does the acronym PCB stand for? Polychlorinated biphenyls
the diet and health recommendations advise limiting salt to less than 6 grams per day: it emphasizes moderation, not adequacy. What are the symptoms of sodium toxicity and chlorine toxicity? Na: edema, acute hypertension. Cl: vomiting
Amino acids can be classified according to the chemical structures of their sidechains. What are these 7 classes? Aliphatic, alcohols, Aromatic, Bases, Sulfur-containing, Acids, Amides
What does a hydrometer measure? concentration of dissolved solids
True/False: a low range or small standard deviation indicates a greater uniformity or less variability in the process true
in packaging ready-to-cook meats, what type of film should be used if the product is to be heat-shrunk? PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride)
if one has a liquid product which is very acidic and reactive, the choice of packaging may be... Glass
in food packaging, what do the initials WVTR stand for? Water Vapor Transmission Rate
Federal SOIs for jellies, preserves, and jams require: A. not <43% soluble solids in finished product, B.not <45% sugar to 55% fruit in the formula, C.not > 65% soluble solids in the finished product, D. not<45% fruit to 55% sugar in formula D. not < 45% fruit to 55% sugar in the formula
Fats and oils are soluble in... ethyl ether
the degree of unsaturation of a fat is measured by the ______value iodine value
in sensory testing, what compound is most often used as a standard for bitterness? Caffeine Citrate
the Munsell System is based on the use of what 3 color attributes? Hue, L-value, and Chroma
a theory of spectrophotometry is based on what formula? state the meaning of each symbol in the formula A=ECL (Beer-Lambert Law). A is absorption, E is Molar Extinction Coefficient, C is concentration in moles/L, L is the length of the light path in cm
If you have 2 different foods, food A w/pH=4 and food B w/pH=6. which one is more acidic and by how many times? A, 100 times more acidic than B
Enzyme used for debranching of starch molecule is: A.alpha amylase, B. Beta amylase,C. Glucoamylase, or D. Pullalanase D. pullalanase
Which is a non-reducing sugar: A.glucose, B.sucrose, C.maltose, or D. fructose? B. sucrose
What is the pressure (in kPa) of apple juice that is held at a 10m high tank assuming the density of 1kg/m3 density x gravity x height= 1 x 9.81 x 10= 98kPa
microwave heating is accomplished by _______ molecular friction
which of the procedures listed is designed to kill most microorganisms: A.radappertization, B.radicitation, or C.radurization? A. radappertization
Which dairy breed of cow averages the highest fat content of raw milk?: A.Holstein, B.Guernsey, C. Ayrshire, or D. Jersey D. Jersey
foods relatively high in fat are frozen prior to irradiation to: A.inactivate some foodborne illnesses,B. preserve the frozen food, C. minimize nutrient loss and flavor changes, or D. help drive oxygen out? C. minimize nutrient loss and flavor changes
aflatoxin can be detected by placing material under: A.fluorescent light, B.a light bulb, C.UV light, or D. infared light? C. UV light
the fungus Claviceps purpurea produces a group of toxins that cause: A. turkey X disease, B. ATA, C. diarrhea and vomiting, or D. ergotism D. ergotism
aflatoxins are NOT produced by: A.Aspergillus flavus, B. Aspergillus parasiticus, or C.Aspergillus chraceus C.Aspergillus chraceus
the consumption of rotten apples may lead to intoxication by the presence of: A.yeast, B.spoilage bacteria, C.aflatoxins,or D.patulin D. patulin
the critical events of infection by ingested virus appear to occur in: A.esophagus, B.stomach, C.small intestine, or D. large intestine C.small intestine
What is the only Carbohydrate found in milk? lactose
viruses specific to E. coli are: A.eshiphages, B.cytopathic phages, C.coliphages, or D.microphages C.coliphages
adverse reaction to a food or food component that occurs through unknown mechanisms even including psychosomatic illnesses is called: A.food anaphylaxis, B.food idiosyncrasy, or C.metabolic reaction? B.food idiosyncrasy
name the most common food idiosyncrasy Chinese restaurant syndrome
True/False: chlorophylls which are responsible for the green color of plants are permitted as food colors in the US False
what was the 1st comprehensive legislation regarding regulation of dyes intended for use in foods? Federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Duplicates of naturally occuring aromatic compounds which have been synthesized and added to food but which are known to be naturally occuring are called: A.Nature-identical, B.natural-artificial, C.synthetic-nature, or D.plastic surgery flavors A.nature-identical flavors
The most common contaminant which is used to hold vacuum in the isolation apparatus, and causes large, widespread peaks in the gas chromatogram which mask peaks of many important flavor compounds is _______ silicon grease
what percentage does lactose take up in whole milk? 4.8%
which amino acids contain sulfur? Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine are the 4 common sulfur-containing amino acids
what is the maximum amount of sulfites legally permitted by FDA in wines? 350ppm
which one is NOT a nutritive sweetener: A.sucrose, B.aspartame, C.honey, D.cyclamate, or E.corn syrup? D. cyclamate
which non-nutritive sweetener is the derivative of sucrose produced by fungal enzyme: A.L-sugars, B.Aspartame, C.Neosugar, or D.Saccharin? C. Neosugar
Black spot formation on shrimp can be prevented by using: A.beta carotene, B.ascorbic acid, C.tocopherol, or D.ascorbyl palmitate? B. ascorbic acid
the addition of nutrients to achieve concentrations specified in SOIs is referred to as: A.enrichment, B.restoration, C.fortification, or D.identification? A. enrichment
what are beta-glucans? glucose polymers containing both beta 1-3 and 1-4 links
dietary fiber has several physiological effects except: A.increase fecal bulk, B.increase nutrient availability, C.reduce cholesterol, or D.improve large bowel function? B. increasing nutrient availability
what is the difference between regular beer and light beer? light beer averages 33% less calories than regular beer
a technology that will enable the use of aspartame in baked goods is: encapsulation
saccharin is: A.a methyl ester of phenylalanine and aspartic acid, B.200X sweeter than sucrose, C.is metabolized (yielding 4kcal/g), or D.is temp sensitive? B.200X sweeter than sucrose
epoxidized oils serve as stabilizers in packaging materials when: A.exposed to air, B.they contain liquid foods, C.heated or exposed to UV light, or D.under mechanical stress C. heated or exposed to UV light
why are sulfides prohibited from use in foods that are recognized sources of thiamin? because sulfides destroy thiamin, which could lead to deficiencies
Milk is sometimes concentrated using RO and UF equipment; what do these abbreviations stand for? RO=reverse osmosis ; UF=ultra filtration
when used as an oxygen scavenger in a redox reaction, ascorbic acid serves as a ________ reducing agent
list 2 approved application of gamma irradiation in foods inhibit sprouting in tubers and bulbs,reduce microbial population in spices,destruction of salmonella in poultry,destruction of spoilage microorganisms
which of the following products is NOT a pseudoplastic fluid: A.mayonnaise, B.fruit purees, C.condensed milk, or D.60% suspension of starch in water D. 60% suspension of starch in water (its a colloid)
ESL dairy cow product means: A.estimated shelf life, B.extremely short-lived, or C.extended shelf life C.extended shelf life
wavelength of 420nm is in which spectrum? visible spectra (390-750nm)
what is 1UNIT in determining enzyme activity? Micromoles/minute
if the HUE value is 10, you are measuring the color of: A.tomato, B.lemon, C.green apple, or D.onion? A. tomato
what is the process of adding sugar to wine making? Chaptalization
for the sugar-free jellies, pectin used needs to have a degree of esterification of: A.99, B.67, C.55, or D.35? D. 35
put these amino acids in order from smallest to largest molecular size: arginine, alanine, and cysteine alanine smallest, cysteine, arginine largest
Gel filtration separation of proteins is taking advantage of: A.protein charge, B.protein size, C.molecular affinity, or D.pH? B. protein size
which of the following is NOT a globular protein: A.myoglobin, B.collagen, C.amylase, or D.pepsin? B. collagen
what is the difference between an aldose and ketose? aldose has a carbonyl group at the end of the atom, while the carbonyl group is at any other position in a ketose
why is HFCS used for sweetening of cold but not hot drinks? fructose is found either as pyranose or furanose; increasing the temp shifts the equilibrium toward the furanose form (which is less sweet)
butter w/what other ingredient, used as an emulsifier, is used in preparation of Bearnaise Sause? Egg yolk, which have lecithin (natural emulsifier)
in the brewing industry, what is "pitching"? addition of yeast to the cooled wort
the presence of mold Botrytis cinerea in wine can create a problem in: A.fermentation, B.crushing, C.filtration, or D.aging C. filtration: it produces B-glucans, which are large polymers that clog filters
the problem of cloud loss in orange juice is due to: A.high temp, B.low acidity, C.activity of pectin methyl esterase, or D.activity of polyphenol oxidase? C. activity of pectin methyl esterase
if fluid milk is priced at $10 per 100lb, how much does the water cost in the milk? milk is 87% water, so $8.70
What is the cause of the haze in beer? incomplete protein hydrolysis during mashing or insufficient protease activity
buffalo milk is what % of fat: A.20%, B.5%, C.8%, or D.who drinks buffalo milk? C. 8% fat
what enzyme is used as the measure of adequate pasteurization of milk product: A.peroxidase, B.protease, C.alkaline phosphatase, or D.catalase? C. alkaline phosphatase
which of these methods will remove metal ions: A.microfiltration, B.ultrafiltration, C.reverse osmosis, or D.nanofiltration? C. reverse osmosis
name 2 non-thermal food processing technologies. UV light, ultrasound, high pressure, pulsed light, pulsed electric field, irradiation
True/False: metals are added into microwavable popcorn package to achieve increased uniformity of heating true
which of these contain the LEAST amount of fruit juice: A.fruit punch, B.fruit nectar, C.juice beverage, or D.juice blend? A. Fruit punch (only 1% fruit juice)
how much fruit juice is found in fruit punch? 1% fruit juice
how much fruit juice is found in fruit nectar? 25-50% fruit juice
how much fruit juice is found in a juice beverage? 10-20% fruit juice
how much fruit juice is in a juice blend? 100% fruit juice
clarified orange juice is referred to as: A.clear orange juice, B.see-through orange juice, C.orange serum, or D.no-pulp orange juice? C. orange serum
what is the milkfat % of pasteurized whole milk sold in the grocery store? 3.25% milkfat
what does pH stand for? hydrogen potential
what is the largest dairy farmer cooperative and what does it stand for? DFA= Dairy Farmer's of America
using 4 significant figures, tell us how many pounds a gallon of water weighs 8.345 lbs
what is "honey laundering"? honey harvested in one country that is exported to a second country, where it is relabeled as a product of the second country
a US gallon is equivalent to how many UK gallons (one sig fig)? 0.8
which of the following foods contain the lowest content of water: A.fresh carrots, B.fresh tomatoes, C.whole milk, or D.fresh celery? C. whole milk (87.2% water). Carrots contain 88.2% water, fresh tomatoes contain 93.5% water, and fresh celery contains 94.1% water
what is "candling" holding eggs or fish up to light to check their quality
what does the acronym NARMS stand for? National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System
there are an increasing number of people who believe that it is more beneficial and nutritious to feast on insects; what are these people called? entomophagists
you should not attempt to eat insects if you are already allergic to what? Shellfish
Roquefort cheese is made from what type of milk? Sheep's milk
When using a ceramic, plastic, or stainless steel mixing bowl, the addition of what ingredient will help to achieve a more stable meringue? cream of tartar
how many eggs does a typical laying hen produce in a year? 250-290 eggs per year
what characteristic typifies a pome fruit, and name 2 examples? has a compartmented core;apples, pears
in what test is Kovac's reagent used? indole test of IMViC (series of tests to identify organisms in coliform group)
what is a neutralization value? parts by weight of bicarbonate required to neutralize one part acidulant
why would a manufacturer add egg white or glycerol monostearate to a pasta formulation? increases firmness, decreases loss during cooking, reduces stickiness
who first developed a commercial refrigerated biscuit dough process? Lively Willoughby in 1930
Seventh Day Adventists gave us what first convenience food? Ready-to-eat (cold) breakfast cereal
what are the 4 primary grains used in US breakfast cereals? CROW (corn, rye, oats, wheat)
what is semolina? the purified middling obtained from durum wheat
what is farina? a fraction of middlings from hard wheat
what is the US standard for particle size of farina? 100% must pass through a #20 sieve, and no more than 10% can pass through a #45 sieve
what water activity value is where max rate of quality loss occur? 0.8
what water activity value is where mold growth can occur? 0.6
what water activity value is where monolayer moisture value is present? 0.25
what water activity value is where there is a loss of crispness and onset of caking occurs? 0.40
what term describes the process of surgically de-sexing male livestock? castration
by whom and with what products was the 1st commercial canning operation begun in the US? William Underwood 1st canned fish
what is the name for the compound that has a cyclic structure of glucose units? cyclodextrin
what is the term for the threaded part of a glass jar? Finish
which laws, appearing in the general form of driving force over resistance force, describes the following processes: mass transfer, heat transfer, and electrical conductance mass transfer=Fick's Law; heat transfer= Fourier's Law; electric conductance= Ohm's Law
According to the 21 CFR, what is the maximum amount of fat allowed in pork sausage? 50%
what does a piezometer measure? pressure
what is the moisture content of corn flakes after exiting the oven and cooling? 3-5% moisture
what Japanese dish composed of raw tuna is often implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks? sashimi
upon the metabolic breakdown of aspartame, what are the 3 main products? phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol
what does the acronym NFPA stand for? National Food Processors Association
who developed the concept of quality cost? Deming
what is the term for an ingredient that is added during processing that is later, during shipping, handling, and storage is altered, removed, or diminished? a processing aid
what is the most commonly added synthetic antioxidant in breakfast cereals? BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene; phenolic antioxidant used to preserve fats and oils)
what is 1 Angstrom in SI units? 10^ -10 meters
Atomic Mass Spectroscopy separates molecules according to their m/z ratio. What is the m/z ratio? ratio of mass to charge
define a fortified wine and give an example When distilled alcohol is added to wine to increase the alcohol content; port, sherry, madeira, marsala, Commandaria wine and vermouth.
what variety of grape is used for fume blanc wine? Sauvignon Blanc
what is a terrior in the winemaking industry? the soil
the legalization of what chemical compound allowed the development of aseptic processing? Hydrogen Peroxide
Rank the following membrane separation methods based on increasing pore size: microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration RO, UF, MF
what is the most commonly used food ingredient produced enzymatically? High Fructose Corn Syrup
How did cheese-makers overcome the kosher problem of rennet? its produced from a microbiological source as chymosin
How is CO2 produced in traditional champagne manufacture? additional sugar (24g/L) is added prior to bottling, whereafter yeast participate in a 2nd fermentation to produce CO2
what is the main difference in the manufacturing steps between red and white wine production? red wine is fermented w/ the grape skins on
a traditional mediterranean dish is hummus and tahini. What is the major nutritional benefit from this dish? it has a complete amino acid profile
what is the main ingredient of hummus? Chick peas (garbanzo beans)
corn is used as the main food component in many Latin American countries. What is the main nutrient deficiency of corn? Lysine
which media may be used to selectively enumerate coliforms? Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)
what are the selective agents of VRBA? bile salts and crystal violet
name the 4 layers in an ELISA capture antibody,sample,enzyme-labeled antibody,enzyme substrate
what do Z-values represent for a microbial population? The temp required to change a D-value by one log (D is a decimal reduction time at a specific temperature)
what kinds of acids are the most effective acid-based antimicrobial preservatives in foods? weak organic acids, because only undissociated acids can cross the cell membrane
state the Arrhenius equation ln K= -Ea/RT or K=e to the -Ea/RT
define chapatalization the addition of sugar to wine to increase alcohol production
what are the crystals that can form on the inside of a cork of a wine bottle? Tartaric Acid (this is not considered a defect)
what is the name given to zinc deficiency? there is no named deficiency for zinc
about what % zinc is absorbed from a meal? ~25% absorbed; this is not very efficient
On what proteins are zinc transported in the plasma? 66% bound/carried by albumin, 33% carried by alpha-2-macroglobulin
Wilson's Disease involves which mineral? copper
what is the common name of hexaphosphate inositol and what does this compound do? phytic acid: it chelates minerals
what foods are good sources of zinc? oysters (best). Also meat, eggs, dairy, and legumes
in 1215 England, this legal document included statements setting single standard measures for wine, ale, and corn... the Magna Carta
Who led USDA's Poison Squad in 1902, a group that tested compounds on human beings? Harvey Wiley
What book describes in 12 pages poor sanitation conditions in the meat processing plant and caused public outrage toward the industry? Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"; 1905
What weekly report published by the Public Health Service contains all data on foodborne illnesses? Morbidity and Mortality Report
in a recent outbreak of foodborne illness in RTE meats by Bil Mar Foods resulted in a recall of 76 million pounds of product. Name the causitive agent and rare strain that was found in these products. Listeria monocytogenes type E
this environmental toxin is most commonly associated w/discarded batteries and volcanoes and can be found in contaminated fish Mercury
what compound commonly used in transformers for heat dissipation was feared to be extremely carcinogenic? PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl)
the right of states to determine their own laws for food inspections and regulations is ensured by what amendment to the US constitution? the 10th amendment
What cabinet-level department is the FDA a part of? Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
describe the flow direction of water across a cell membrane in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution Isotonic=no net flow (equilibrium);Hypotonic= water flows into the cell;Hypertonic= water flows out of the cell
list 5 genera of bacteria and molds that produce antimicrobial agents Penicillium ,L. lactis, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus,Streptomyces
name 3 monomer subunits that comprise lignin para-hydroxy coumaryl alcohol,coniferyl alcohol,sinapyl alcohol
name 4 bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria and state the most thoroughly studied Nicin, pediocin, diplocoxin, helveticin, and lactacin (nicin most thoroughly studied)
give the genus and species of one microorganism for each of the following categories: gram negative, strict anaerobe, foodborne pathogen, sulfide spoiler gram negative= Salmonella typhimerium or E. coli;strict anaerobe= C. botulinum;foodborne pathogen= S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes Sulfide spoiler= Desulfotomaculum nigrificans
give the genus and species for which the following media are selective:TSC, MacConkey, McBride, Hektoen enteric TSC= C. perfringens;MacConkey= E. coli;McBride= Listeria monocytogenes;Hektoen enteric=Salmonella enteriditis
Name the microorganism associated w/ the following: Ergot poisoning, Zearalenones in corn, Patulin, Aflatoxin Ergot poisoning= Claviceps purpurea; Zearalenones in corn= Fusarium graminarium; Patulin= Penicillium eseparsum; Aflatoxin= Aspergillus flavus
what cheese is associated w/ the following major microorganisms: lactococcus, propionibacterium shermanii, penicillium roqueforti, Lactic streptococci Lactococcus= cheddar (or mozzarella);propionibacterium shermanii= Swiss;penicillium roqueforti= Blue;Lactic streptococci= Edam, Gouda
according to the NLEA, only 11 health claims will be allowed on food labels; name 5 calcium and osteoporosis,folate and neural tube defects,sodium and hypertension,dietary fat and cancer,dietary sat. fat/cholesterol and coronary heart disease,soy intake and cancer,fruits and veg and cancer
classify the following as either endothermic or exothermic: melting, condensation, evaporation, boiling, freezing, crystallization melting=endo; condensation=exo; evaporation= endo; boiling= endo; freezing= exo; crystallization= exo
name the 4 antimicrobial defenses of eggs shell,membranes,lysozyme (lysis of cell walls),avidin (binds biotin; needed for m/o growth),conalbumin (chelates iron)
name the 8 geographic areas into which the IFTSA is divided North Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Southeast, North Central, South Central, Midwest, Pacific West, and Mountain West
what are the 4 major components of whey proteins? alpha-lactalbumen, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumen, immunoglobulins
what doe the following packaging acronyms stand for: LDPE, HDPE, PP, PS, PVC LDPE= low density polyethylene;HDPE= high density polyethylene;PP= polypropylene;PS= polystyrene;PVC= polyvinyl chloride
fruits can be classified according to their respiratory patterns. List 2 climacteric fruits apple, apricot, avocado, banana, mango, papaya, passion fruit, papaw, peach, pear, plum, tomato, watermelon
fruits can be classified according to their respiratory patterns. List 2 non-climacteric fruits blueberry, cacao, cherry, cucumber, fig, grapefruit, lemon, grapes, melon, orange, pineapple, strawberry, tamarillo
what are the common metric units for the following: acceleration, power, mass, force acceleration= meters/seconds squared; power= watt;mass= kg;force= Newton
name 5 microorganisms that have been associated w/food poisoning outbreaks C. botulinum, C. perfringens, B. cereus, S. aureus, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes
differentiate between a gas and a vapor at room temp a vapor is the gaseous state of a substance which is normally liquid at room temp. A gas is a substance with a boiling point below room temp
In the late 19th century, Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda identified what unique taste sensation? Umami
in the human mouth, Streptococcus mutans converts sugar into what substance that causes tooth decay? Lactic acid
what brand became the 1st non-caloric sugar substitute in 1957? Sweet and Low
what chocolate substitute became popular in the 1970's? carob
what nuts are also called Filberts? Hazelnuts
what 18th century economist postulated that population growth will always outpace expansion of the food supply, thus causing famine and disease? Thomas Malthus
what field of science investigates the physical nature of chemical compounds by applying the methods and theories of physics to chemical phenomena? physical chemistry
name the 5 structures that D-Glucose may be present as in water alpha and beta glucofuranose, alpha and beta glucopyranose, and open-chain aldehyde
what are the symptoms of zinc deficiency? neuropsychiatric symptoms (irritability, depression, lethargy, sleepiness, slurred speech, tremors), keratinization of the eye, dermatitis (around orifices), Diarrhea
name 3 metalloenzymes that zinc is a part of. Alcohol dehydrogenase, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, collagenase
what agency regulates the production, labeling, and sale of the following products: wine coolers, Emu, Turkey, Lite Beer wine coolers= FDA; Emu= FDA; Turkey= USDA Lite Beer= Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB)
match the following common descriptions w/the correct classification of flow behavior: pseudoplastic, dilatent, Bingham plastic, Thixotropic Pseudoplastic= shear thinning;Dilantent= shear thickening;Bingham Plastic= yield stress; Thixotropic= thickens w/time
name 3 chemical properties of food phosphates that governs their usefulness as food additives Buffering and pH control, Inactivation of metal ions by sequestrations or recipitation, polyvalency (inhibition of certain surface interactions, or promotion of certain molecular cross-linking)
what 2 microorganisms are the principal acid producers in the manufacture of sour cream? Lactococcus lactis spp cremoris and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis
name 4 water-soluble vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B12, B5(pantothenic acid), Folic Acid, vitamin C
what microorganism is used in the fermentation of both bread and beer? Saccharomyces cerevisiae
What is the name for the absolute temp scale in the English System that is based on the Fahrenheit scale? Rankin
a microbial population of 3,000 CFU/ml that is exposed to a 2D process will theoretically have a final population of what? 30 CFU/ml
what metric prefix is used to denote a value of one billion? giga-
state the non-caloric sweetener(s) found in the following beverages: Fresca, Bottled Pepsi, diet coke from a soda fountain Fresca= aspartame;Bottled Diet Pepsi= aspartame;Diet Coke from a soda fountain= aspartame and saccharin
give 2 examples of a "drupe" A fleshy fruit with thin skin and a central stone containing the seed: plum, apricot, peach, cherry, almond, olive
what fermented beverage is made from mare's milk? koumis
what are 3 common units for expressing pressure from either the metric or English system? kPa, Pa, torr, atm, psi, mmHg
what will occur in a sample of milk at 20 degrees C when the pH is lowered to 4.6? the casein will precipitate OR it will curdle
How do lactose intolerance and milk allergy differ? lactose intolerance results from a lack of lactase, milk allergy is an autoimmune response to milk protein
what is the common name for vitamin B3? Niacin
in 2000, a proposal was submitted to the FDA for review to require the addition of 2 essental fatty acids to a particular product. Name the fatty acids and the product Baby formula: docosahexanois acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA)
state the full names that correspond w/the 7 recycling #s for recyclable polymers 1.PETE=polyethylene teraphtalate; 2.HDPE= high density polyethylene;3.PVC=polyvinyl chloride;4.LDPE= low density polyethylene; 5.PP=polypropylene;6.PS=polystyrene;7.other (lexan polycarbonate returnable milk bottles)
what is the trade name for polytetrafluoroethylene? Teflon
what is the predominant character compound in banana oil? isopentyl acetate
what structural property gives emulsifiers their emulsification ability? hydrophilic (polar) head and a hydrophobic (hydrocarbon)tail
which step in the Maillard reaction involves a reaction between a dicarbonyl and amino acid? Strecker Degradation
which of the following pH values in a food would yield the highest rate of non-enzymatic browning: A.5.5, B.8.5, C.9.5, or D.3.5 B. 8.5
Typically, what causes the formation of characteristic flavor compounds in vegetables? tissue damage, either from heating, chewing,stressing, etc.
almost all flavor compounds that have a branched chain structure are derived from what group of precursors? amino acids
what is the minimum temp for carmelization to occur? 150 degree C
what off-flavor compound is associated w/ascorbic acid browning? furfural
a rapid pH drop in post-mortem pork causes decreased water binding by muscle tissue. What is this condition called? PSE: Pale, Soft, exudative
what happens to the texture of cooked fish as post-mortem pH decreases? it toughens
beef and lamb are particularly susceptible to rapid contraction of muscle during rigor at very low refrigeration temps, affecting meat texture. What is this process called? cold-shortening
meat that is frozen pre-rigor then rapidly thawed at a later time can yield meat that is tougher. What is this phenomenon called? thaw rigor
what is the collective term for a group of chickens? a brood or clutch
what does the media DRBC stand for and what is it used to enummerate? Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol: yeasts and molds
with what food source does the North American Mycological Association deal? mushrooms
from what plant is linseed oil derived? flax
in brewing, what does the term "pitching" refer to? adding yeast to the wort
what is a "baker's percentage"? a scale where the amount of flour is set to 100%, and other ingredients are expressed as a weight percentage of flour
name 3 molds that cause spoilage in vegetables Alternaria, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus
according to a 1999 CDC report on foodborne illness, almost all rates of infection by specific microorganisms decreased w/ the exception of which pathogen? Salmonella
wine is often classified according to the year the crop was harvested. What is the term for this? Vintage
what fortified wine originated in Jerez de las Frontera in Spain? Sherry
What term describes the opposite of a sparkling wine? a still wine
Beta-glucans have been identified w/beneficial and detrimental traits. Name a nutritional benefit and a processing detriment reduces colon cancer, and causes viscosity and filtering problems in brewing
what particular concern does ammonium bicarb pose when used in a leavening system? a product must be baked to dryness to eliminate off-flavors
what is the only edible fruit to have its seeds located on the outside surface? strawberries
How do lean and fatty fish differ in regards to where they store fat? lean fish store fat in liver, fatty fish store fat in tissue
classify the following as either a lean or fatty fish: cod, mackerel cod=lean; mackerel= fatty
What term describes the distance between 2 z-disks in a muscle fiber? sarcomere
what is the term for contractile unit of a muscle fibril? sarcomere
what food product is formed in the following process: collagen is carefully denatured by raising temp until fibrils shrink to 1/3 their length, forming a more amorphous structure? gelatin
muscle tissue is often allowed to stand post-rigor at refrigerated temps to yield a more tender meat. What is this process called? resolution of rigor
Occasionally, the FDA will allow controversial additives to foods that may harm a subset of US consumers, w/the stipulation of requiring a statement that provides customers w/ "informed consent". What is the statement of for products containing aspartame? Phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine
what Supreme Court Case in 1975 established the precedent for criminal liability of food company executives w/o the need of establishing intent? US vs. John Park= the Park Principle
what process is modeled by the Monod equation in foods? microbial growth
100g of potatoes prepared in which of the following ways would have the most calories: A.boiled, B.raw, or C.baked? B. Raw
fluid flow resulting in a Reynolds # of 10,000 would be what type of flow? Turbulent
what change was made to Golden Rice? Vitamin A was added
in order to combat BeriBeri, what was added to rice? Thiamin (B1)
sweet chocolate must contain what percent chocolate liquor? 15%
an electromagnetic wave w/ 10^10 cycle/sec is what type of wave? microwave
in brewing, what is the name of the step when the malt is dried and what reaction causes unintended consequences? Kilning; Maillard Reaction
name 4 colligative properties of water freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure, vapor pressure
in brewing, what is meant by the term "pitching"? adding yeast to the wort
which of the following solutions would have the lowest freezing point: A.1L of water w/1 mole of sucrose, B.1L of water w/1mole of amylase, C.1L of water w/1mole of NaCl, or D.1L of water w/1 mole of glucose C. 1L of water w/1 mole of NaCl
in Scromboid poisoning, what serves as the precursor to histamine formation? amino acid Histadine
In terms of food fermentation, what does the acronym NSLAB stand? Non Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria
What is the minimum # of cases required to declare a botulinum outbreak? 1
which is the most commonly consumed single-celled food? the Egg
in the meat industry, what are "Sweetbreads"? the thymus and pancreas glands of animals. They are a light meat that is firmer in texture than brains
what is the commercial name for Pediococcus organisms commonly used in the meat industry? Lactacel
what is the minimum percentage Daily Value of fiber on nutritional label to declare the food product an excellent source of fiber? 20%
Trichinosis is caused by Trichinella spiralis; what class of microorganism is this? Nematode
What are the 3 forms of water in food? Free water, adsorbed water, and water of hydration
The seeds of the Arachis hypogea, a legume, are roasted and ground into a protein-rich, viscous, spreadable paste. What is this paste commonly called? peanut butter
What are teratogens? agents capable of causing a mis-read in DNA, leading to birth defects
what are the principle proteins in soybeans? glycinin and Beta-conglycinin
what are the pasteurization parameters for whole egg or egg white? 60-62 degrees C for 3.5-4 minutes
what is "regression analysis"? statistical method to analyze relation between 2 or more variables such that one of them can be predicted by using information of the other
Name 2 types of pumps used primarily in food industries Rotary (centrifugal) and positive displacement
which primary microorganisms are responsible for contagious mastitis in cows? Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae
why do we perform a de-sugaring step before drying egg whites? to degrade traces of glucose and avoid Maillard browning or discoloration during drying
in the 1940's, legislation was passed requiring that all grain products crossing state lines be enriched w/which vitamins and minerals? thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, iron, folate (folate in late 1990s)
name the protein source of gelatin collagen, animal source
which artificial sweetener cannot be consumed by people w/disease known as phenylketonuria? aspartame, contains phenylalanine
what pigment contributes to the purple color in grapes and blueberries? anthocyanin
which fungus was the principle cause of the Irish Potato Famine? Phytophthora infestans
which is the most abundant amino acid? lysine
In the US, irradiated foods must carry a declaration "Treated w/Radiation" or must carry a symbol on their label; what is this symbol called? Radura, which is green in color
which of the following is an unaged spirit made from grain and potatoes: A.vodka, B.champagne, C.gin, or D.whiskey? A. Vodka
H5N1 virus is also commonly known as what? Influenza A virus, Avian Influenza virus, or Bird Flu virus
which of the following states is the joint leader, w/Minnesota, in US turkey production: A.California, B.Texas, C.North Carolina, or D.Memphis? C. North Carolina
match the following TSE diseases w/the animals associated w/them: Chronic Wasting Disease, Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy, Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and Scrapie. Human, Goat, Deer, Cat Chronic Wasting Disease=deer;Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy=cats;Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease=Human;Scrapie= goat
Like Roquefort and Stilton, which of the following is also a blue cheese: A.Coloumiers, B.Tallegio, C.Braun, or D.Maytag? D. Maytag
which of the following food categories is NOT approved for treatment w/irradiation: A.fruits, B.milk and dairy products, C.animal and pet foods, or D.none of the above? B. milk and dairy products
Commercially available meat tenderizer contains mostly what enzyme? Papain, from papayas
what is the primary function of the additive sodium silicoaluminate in salt? Maintains free-flowing property
what were the 3 original flavors of Fruit Loops breakfast cereal? Orange, Lemon, and Cherry
what is the recycling # for the packaging material polystyrene? 6
which mold (genus only) is a major concern for microbiological spoilage in commercially produced bread? Rhizopus (Rhizopus stolonifer is the full name)
what is "ice wine"? wine produced from frozen grapes, w/o thawing
what is glazing, when applied to fish handling? fish is flash-frozen in a freezer; when solidified, it is dipped into clean, cold water so that a thin layer of ice is formed on the frozen fish. This process is repeated to get a 1/4 inch layer of clear ice all over the fish
since 1981, the acronym CDC has stood for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Before that, since 1970, it was known as Center for Disease Control. What was the full name prior to 1970? Communicable Disease Center
Which group of pathogenic bacteria is most often responsible for traveler's diarrhea? Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Werniche-Korsakoff syndrome is a disease mainly found in people w/alcoholism, resulting from a deficiency of what vitamin? Thiamin (B1)
in food packaging, highly sized SBS paperboards are often called "food board"; what does SBS stand for? Solid Bleached Sulfate
list the 6 steps of natural meat fermentation process. 1)grinding and mixing;2)curing;3)Remix and stuffing;4)drying;5)Tempering;6)fermentation and smoking
name the 3 components of flavor taste, aroma, trigeminal (and mouthfeel)
name the cyclic structure that contains only glucose units cyclodextrin
what is the phase change that occurs during freeze-drying? sublimation
what are the 8 areas of the IFTSA? Midwest, North Central, Pacific West, Mountain West, South East, South Central, North Atlantic, Central Atlantic
Name 6 of the 8 (or 7?) pathogenic types of botulinum toxin A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, G
in respect to packaging, what does EVOH stand for? Ethylene Vinyl alcohol
in relation to leavening, give the full form of the acronym SAPP Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
in relation to colloid theory, give the full form of the acronym DVLO Derjaguin, Verway, Landau, and Overbeek
give the scientific name for vitamin K1 phenylquininone
name the 5 taste sensations salty, sweet, sour, bitter, umami
what is the bitter component found in grapefruit? Naringin
Theobromine and caffeine are in what chemical class? methylxanthine
this vitamin is injected into newborn infants vitamin K
which book drew attention to the of pesticides in the environment? Silent Spring
List the following events in order from least current to most current: The Jungle, Clarence Birdeye, Basic 4 Food Pyramid, Louis Pasteur publication, Implementation of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act Oldest: Pasteur, Jungle, Birdseye, FD&C Act, Basic 4
Name the USDA grades for Lamb Prime, Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull
the Journal of Food Science used to be called this: Food Research
name the 2 most common positive displacement pumps rotary and reciprocating
what is the name when its negative 273 degrees C? absolute zero
what is the difference between Degrees C and Kelvins? Degrees C is 273 degrees greater than Kelvin (the Kelvin scale starts 273 degrees below C)
Name the 4 steps of the Fight BAC program Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill
name 3 necessary elements of proper refrigeration constant temp, humidity control, and air circulation
Typically, how old is a calf at time of slaughter? less than 3 months
what plant is tapioca derived from? Cassava
what is "nitrite burning"? excessive amounts of nitrite or nitrate are added during curing causes severe oxidation of the meat pigment, resulting in a green color
what color is myoglobin when iron is in the ferrous state and water is bound to the pigment? Purple
which amino acid is part of hemoglobin? histidine
Name the enzyme that causes browning of many fruits and vegetables polyphenol oxidase
what is the purpose of using a rotary retort for canned soup? the rotation causes currents in the liquid, which causes more efficient heating during retort.
define the D and Z values in respect to microbiology D-value= the time required to kill 90% of the microbial load;Z-value= the Temp change required to change the D-value by 1 log
what are the units of the Reynolds number? it is unitless
what is Ohm's Law? Voltage= Current x Resistance
What organism is thought to contribute to Crohn's Disease? Mycobacterium tuberculosis
what bacterial genus is responsible for ropiness in bread? Bacillus (stearothermophilus)
name 3 fungal genuses that produce mycotoxins Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus
What are 3 sources of sodium? Sea water, salt mines, salt springs
grenadine is produced from syrup of which fruit? pomegranate
what are the 2 monosaccharides that make up peptidoglycan in bacteria? n-acetyl glucosamine and n-acetyl muramic acid
what is the curing agent in meat and what 3 effects does this curing agent have? Sodium Nitrite; it is responsible for color formation, flavor (prevention of warmed-over flavor) and inhibition of C. botulinum (spoilage was acceptable)
What is the difference between active and passive MAP? Passive= atmosphere is modified at manufacture;Active= gas needs to reach a steady state over time
Babies have on average how many more taste buds than adults? 1,000
pigments that are manufactured by precipitating a dye w/a metallic salt are called what? Lakes
with respect to cognac, what does VSOP stand for? Very Superior Old Pale
what is the name for DNA transfer using a vector? Transduction
name 3 methods used for DNA fingerprinting RFLP, PCR, AmpFLP, STR, Y-chromosome, mitochondrial analyses
which type of chromotography is described by : a substrate is covalently bound to the column matrix; as the effluent passes through, a specific targeted compound attaches to the bound substrate and becomes trapped on the stationary phase Affinity Chromotography
what is the name for a single caviar egg roe
which of the following classes does nitrite use in hot dogs fall under: A.food additive, B.GRAS, or C.pre-sanctioned C. Pre-sanctioned
COD, BOD, and TOC are all methods used to measure pollutants in water. Which method is the cheapest but takes the longest time to complete? BOD
what is the primary use of sodium hypochlorite in the food industry? sanitizer
what type of microorganism are quaternary ammonium (QUAT)compounds most effective against? gram positive bacteria
Eugenol is the primary flavor compound of what spice? clove
Give the chance probability for the following discrimination tests: triangle test, duo-trio test, paired comparison Triangle Test= 1/3;Duo-Trio Test=1/2;Paired Comparison Test= 1/2
which of the following types of non-fat dried milk (NDM) powders has the highest solubility in pure water: A.Instant NDM, B.roller-dried NDM, C.high-heat NDM, or D.regular NDM? A. instant NDM
which of these saturated salt solutions has the highest relative humidity at 25 degrees C: A.potassium chloride, B.sodium chloride, C.magnesium chloride, or D.lithium chloride? A. Potassium Chloride
a Twinkie is a "Golden Sponge Cake w/a Cream Filling", which was invented in 1930. What was the original filling in Twinkies before it was replaced by vanilla-flavored cream during WWII? Banana Cream
What is the name of the olive green pigment found in broccoli that has been over-cooked or cooked in acid? pheophytin
in what year was the Bioterrorism Act passed: A.1999, B.2000, C.2001, or D.2002? D. 2002
a recent outbreak of E. coli linked to Taco Bell restaurants was initially blamed on green onions, but the FDA later found that the source of the outbreak was not green onions, but was actually from what? lettuce
what is the function of cream of tartar in angel food cake? stabilize the egg foam and whiten the color
name the bacteria that the following selective media select for: Oxford, Baird-Parker, and Bismuth-Sulfite Oxford= Listeria;Baird-Parker= Staphylococcus aureus;Bismuth-Sulfite= Salmonella
which of the following is NOT a low-acid (pH 7-5.5) food: A.cheddar cheese, B.poultry, C.mayonnaise, or D.rice? C.Mayonnaise
What is Gerber acid and what is it used for? 90% sulfuric acid; it is used as a reagent in crude fat analysis of milk (dairy products)
which of the following does NOT generally have moisture loss as a mechanism of deterioration: A.fresh vegetables, B.RTE salads, C.Ambient packaged cakes, or D.potato chips? D. potato chips
which of the following fruits is highest in dietary fiber: A.1/2 of a grapefruit, B.1 cup fresh raspberries, C.1 whole papaya, or D.1 cup sweet cherries B. 1 cup of fresh raspberries
Dr. James Caleb Jackson created the 1st packaged breakfast cereal; what was its name? Granula
name 3 factors that affect the stability of an emulsion according to Stoke's Law. particle radius, particle density, fluid viscosity, fluid density, standard gravity
what food writer and humor columnist, who has a fondness for Little Debbie Nutty Bars, retired from the Star Tribune after 39 years? Al Sicherman
Yakult is a Japanese probiotic yogurt-like product made by fermenting a mixture of skim milk and sugar. What organism is used in the fermentation of Yakult? Lactobacillus casei
What year did the American Dairy Association Launch the "Real" Seal, which is used for US dairy products that meet federal SOI, or products containing these US dairy products? 1980
Who wrote the book Mindless Eating? Brian Wansink
what country is the world's largest producer of Vanilla? Madagascar
Indicate the type of whey produced during the manufacture of the following cheeses: Cottage, Cheddar, Swiss, and Ricotta. Cottage= acid whey; Cheddar= sweet whey; Swiss= sweet whey; Ricotta= acid whey
a recent pet food recall took more than 60 million cans off the shelf and sickened pets across the country. What chemical was found in the contaminated pet foods? Melamine
What year did the Food network 1st start broadcasting: A.1970, B.1985, C.1993, or D.2000? D. 2000
How many teaspoons of sugar does the average North American consume every day: A.9tsp, B.19tsp, C.22tsp, or D.39tsp? C. 22tsp
Under what major enzyme classification does the enzyme chymosin (used in the manufacture of rennet coagulated cheeses) fall? Hydrolase; chymosin is an acid protease like pepsin, it breaks peptide bonds through hydrolysis reaction
Define titratable acidity of milk and milk products. measures the amount of alkali required to neutralize the components of a given quantity of milk and milk products, and is expressed as a percentage of lactic acid. This test is used to determine milk quality and to monitor fermentation of cheeses
what is the thickness of a 20 points paperboard carton? 0.02 inches (1 point= 1/1000 inch)
which of the following companies is NOT headquartered in Minnesota: A.General Mills, B.Cargill, C.the Schwan Food Company, or D.Kraft Foods? D.Kraft Foods (Northfield, Illinois)
Which government agency is responsible for policing food advertisements that run on television? the Federal Trade Commission
A mint julep is an alcoholic drink consisting of sugar, water, mint, and what alcoholic spirit? Bourbon Whiskey
A substance that exhibits an increase in viscosity with an increase in shear rate is known as what type of fluid? Dilatant
Give the name of the 1st genetically modified whole food to be sold commercially. Flavr Savr tomato
Animals are often rested prior to slaughter so that they do not use up all of their glycogen; how does this rest lead to a preservative effect? Glycogen is anaerobically converted to lactic acids, lowering the pH
List the common flour products in order from least to greatest amount of protein: pastry flour, all-purpose flour, cake flour, and bread flour. cake flour, pastry flour, all-purpose flour, bread flour
How many times per year is the newsletter of the Institute of Food Technologists Student Association published? 3
what is the general bacterial limit for Grade A pasteurized milk? 20,000 CFU/ml
according to research reported by the United Press International, what is the most recognized smell in the world: A.popcorn, B.peanut butter, C.coffee, or D.freshly baked bread? C. coffee
Which of the following has the largest diffusion coefficient in water at 20 degrees C: A.ammonia, B.Hydrogen, C.Oxygen, or D.Chlorine? B. Hydrogen
According to the NLEA, which of the following food components is NOT associated w/ risk or prevention of certain types of cancer: A.dietary fat, B.fruits & vegetables, C.dietary sat fat/cholesterol, or D.none of the above? C. dietary saturated fat and cholesterol
which of the following acids is NOT an organic acid: A.phosphoric acid, B.citric acid, C.nitric acid, or D.benzoic acid? C. nitric acid
which legume has the highest percent weight crude protein per weight dry matter: A.peanuts, B.chickpeas, C.soybeans, or D.lentils? C. soybeans
what is the formula weight of sodium chloride within 1/2 a gram? 58.5g
give the country of origin of the following cheeses: Feta, Monterey Jack, Primost, and Gouda. Feta=Greece; Monterey Jack= USA; Primost= Norway;Gouda= Netherlands (Holland)
which of the following was the 1st product to have a barcode on its package: A.M&M chocolate candies, B.Wrigley's gum, C.Campbell's tomato soup, or D.Heinz tomato ketchup? B. Wrigley's gum
What is the starter culture used in the manufacture of cultured buttermilk? Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis
what is the function of oxidizing agents in bread dough? strengthens dough by promoting di-sulfide bonds
What is the favorite ice cream flavor in the US? Vanilla
name the science of managing and analyzing biological data using advanced computing techniques? bioinformatics
which of the following food fats contain the highest proportion of saturated fatty acids: A.lard, B.beef tallow, C.butter fat, or D.coconut oil? D. coconut oil
the saturated 12 carbon fatty acid is commonly known as what? Lauric Acid
what is the anti-sticking agent approved by the FDA that can be added to processed cheese? Lecithin
what deficiency disease is associated w/the consumption of a diet high in polished rice? Beriberi (thiamin, or B1 deficiency)
name 3 charged amino acids arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine
according to the National Yogurt Association, what is the minimum # of live bacteria in the final yogurt packing for it to have a "live active culture" seal on the product? 10^8 CFU/g (100 million cultures per gram at time of manufacture)
name the 3 stages of free radical reactions initiation, propagation, termination
what do the following acronyms associated w/food analysis techniques stand for: SEM, SDS-PAGE, NMR, FTIR SEM=scanning electron microscopy;SDS-PAGE= sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel;NMR=nuclear magnetic resonance;FTIR= Fourier Transform Infared Spectroscopy
what does the media DRBC stand for and what is it used to enumerate? Dichloran Rose Bental Chloramphenical; yeasts and molds
In relation to bacterial cultures, give the full form of the acronym ATCC. American Type Culture Collection
with respect to glass bottles, what is a "spike"? Spikes are glass projections inside the bottles
What is the melting point, within 5 degrees, of sucrose? 160 degrees C (320 degrees F)
Kulfi is a delicious, milk-based, frozen dessert. What country is Kulfi native to? India
what is the name of the commonly used melt test for cheese where sample discs of known dimensions are heated in an oven and the final diameter of the melted disc is measured? Schreiber melt test
According to the FSIS, what is the maximum allowable percent antioxidants used in fresh sausage based on fat content? 0.02% (200ppm)
With respect to pectin, what does DE refer to? Degree of Esterification
What was the very 1st Little Debbie snack cake sold in 1960? Oatmeal cream pie
which first lady helped popularize ice cream in the US by serving it at White House dinners? Dolly Madison
Which Wrigley's gum will not stick to most dental work? Freedent
in 2002 there was a worldwide vote to pick the newest color of M&Ms chocolate candies. What color was voted in: A.black, B.gold, C.silver, or D.purple? D. purple
if you're snacking on Teddy Grahams in a yellow box, which flavor are they? Honey
what candy bar allegedly was named in honor of a daughter of President Grover Cleveland? Baby Ruth
in some cities, the shortbread flavor of Girl Scout Cookies is named what: A.Trefoils, B.Tagalongs, C.Samoas, or D.Shorties? A. Trefoils
What tree's resin was used to make the 1st commercial chewing gum in 1850: A.Birch, B.Spruce, C.Pine, or D.Oak? B. Spruce
What chocolate company is credited w/having the 1st diagram showing the location of each piece of candy in an assorted box? Whitman's Candies
on the TV sitcom Sienfeld, what was Elaine's favorite movie theater candy? Jujifruits
What chocolate company shares part of its name w/ a red planet? M&M Mars
what was the 1st flavored gum? Black Jack Gum
During the Middle Ages, candy moved from what kind of base to a sugar base? Honey
in 1990, Hershey sent 144,000 heat-resistant candy bars to soldiers in which war? Desert Storm
The original gummi bear was created in which country in 1922? Germany
What is the official state dessert of Massachusetts? Boston Cream Pie
According to the code of Federal Regulations, if unpasteurized milk is used to manufacture cheese, how long must the cheese be aged prior to sale? at least 60 days
Various microscopic techniques are used to evaluate the microstructure of foods and food products. What do the following microscopic techniques stand for: CLSM, SEM, and TEM CLSM= Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy;SEM= Scanning Electron Microscopy;TEM=Transmission Electron Microscopy
The Folin-Ciocalteu measures what food constituents? phenolic acids
How many flowers are in the design stamped on each side of an Oreo cookie? 12
Where was the 1st Pizza Hut built? Wichita, Kansas
Name the organism that is responsible for the tempeh fermentation. Rhizopus oligosporus
What food product was invented by a French chemist in 1869 by treating oils w/hydrogen? Margarine
From what plant is the flavor anise derived? fennel
name 3 ways to slow or prevent lipid oxidation in a food exclude oxygen (packaging), lower temp, protect from light, formulate w/antioxidants, inactivate lipoxygenase, or chelate metal catalysts
the average American consumes how many pounds of refined sugar per year: A.65, B.85, C.100, or D.120? A. 65 lbs
the occurence of which amino acid along a peptide chain is primarily responsible for a disruption of secondary structure of proteins? proline
Insufficient intake of what 2 primary nutrients during childhood and youth may lead to osteoporosis later in life? Calcium and Vitamin D
State whether the following beer types are bottom-fermenting or top-fermenting: ale and lager? ale is top-fermenting, lager is bottom-fermenting
rank the following foods by their corresponding water activities from highest to lowest: syrups, jams, potato chips, and bread Bread (0.96), syrups (0.88), jams (0.77), potato chips (0.30)
how many meters is 1 Angstrom? 10^-10 meters
state the mathematical constant pi rounded to 5 decimal places 3.14159
Who is the current commissioner of the FDA? Dr. Margaret "Peggy" Hamburg (since 2009)
What is the antimicrobial agent found in onions and garlic? allicin (also allylic acid)
give the traits necessary to completely define a microorganism as a fecal coliform. gram negative rod, facultative anaerobe, ferments lactose at 44.5 degrees Celsius
what chemical structure is common to all phenolic compounds? aromatic ring w/a hydroxyl group
the classification of a microorganism based on its response to an antibody assay is called what? serotyping
fecal contamination from what mammal is the source of almost all foodborne viral illnesses? humans
John Kendrew deduced the complete arrangement of what protein's 2600 atoms, which was the 1st protein to be identified in this manner? myoglobin
Engineers commonly use dimensionless numbers to aid in solving equations; which dimensionless numbers do the following 2-letter abbreviations represent when expressed in the subscript to a capital N: Sc, Re, Nu, Bi? Sc=Schmidt;Re=Reynolds;Nu= Nusselt;Bi=Biot
in 1953, General Mills released its 1st pre-sweetened cereal; what was its name? Jets
by definition, an alpha-helix peptide chain contains how many amino acid residues per turn? 3.6
what year was the 1st Pillsbury bake-off and in what city was it held? 1949, New York
In the German brewing process, what constituents are mixed to create the mash? Malted grain and water
what uniform multi-state mandate requires the testing of milk for the presence of antibiotics? Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
which of the following is NOT a true cereal grain: A.sorghum, B.buckwheat, C.millet, or D.triticale? B. buckwheat
state the equation for % overrun of ice cream ((weight of mix-weight of ice cream)/weight of ice cream)x100
how many carbons are in lactose? 12
Gall stones are composed primarily of what compound? cholesterol
what sugar is the chief sweetener of natural maple syrup? Sucrose
what type of animals are Barrows and Gilts, and what is the meaning of these terms? both are slaughter hogs; Barrows are castrated young males, and Gilts are females that haven't produced piglets
which of the following contains the greatest mass of sugar: A.10 dates, B.12 oz. Coke, C.1 cup Vanilla ice cream, or D.1 medium orange? A. 10 dates
What was the flavor of the 1st Betty Crocker cake mix: A.chocolate, B.vanilla, C.butter, or D.ginger? D. ginger
what is the residue left after refining sugar? molasses
what agency of the USDA is responsible for inspection of eggs and egg products? Agricultural Marketing Service
A treatment w/a combination of 2 enzymes can prevent browning of egg whites; state the type of browning and the 2 enzymes Maillard reaction; glucose oxidase and catalase
Intermediate moisture foods chiefly rely on what food ingredients for the desired texture and lowering of water activity? sugar
Flour bleaching targets what type of food pigment? carotenoids
name the 1st 5 letters of the Greek alphabet alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon
what equation can be used to relate the effect of fluid flow through pipes to a pressure drop? Bernoulli Equation
which vitamin is sometimes considered to be vitamin B5? Pantothenic acid
Symptoms from this organism (genus and ssp) are often mis-diagnosed as appendicitis, and have resulted in many unnecessary appendectomies Yersinnia enterocolitica
what bacterial foodborne pathogen can tolerate the lowest water activity and the highest salinity? Staphylococcus aureus
state the 1-letter abbreviations for the following amino acids: Arginine, Asparagine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Phenylalanine Arginine=R; Asparagine=N;Alanine=A;Aspartic Acid=D;Phenylalanine=F
what does the term "hermetic" refer to? a container that is absolutely impermeable to gasses and vapors throughout its entirety, including its seams
True/False: a fresh egg has a high percentage of thick, white next to the yolk and a small amount of thin white beyond the thick white True
How is the aging or ripening of meat generally done? Hanging the carcass in a cold room anywhere from 1-4 weeks at 2 degrees C, while controlling humidity and wrapping carcass to avoid moisture loss
List the methods of artificial tenderizing mechanical means, applying low levels of salt (salt solubilizes meat protein), adding enzyme to meat, such as bromelin, ficin, trypsin, or papain, electrical stimulation (application of sufficient voltage to cause rapid muscle contractions)
The most important sausage product in the US is the__________ frankfurter
The production method of frankfurter is similar to that of ________, except for the difference in size. bologna
how long is a frankfurter? 6 inches
What is the composition of a whole, mixed egg? as purchased:65.5% water, 11.9% protein,9.3% fat,0.9% ash edible portion:73.7% water, 13.4% protein, 10.5% fat, and 1.0% ash
what is a pelagic fish? saltwater fish that is found in the middle and surface water layers of the sea. ex. herring, mackerel, salmon, tuna, sardines, and anchovies
What is the demersal fish? saltwater fish that is found at or near the bottom of the sea, ordinarily on the continental shelves; cod, haddock, whiting, and flat fish such as flounder and halibut, ocean perch, shrimp, oysters, clams, and crab
True/False: freshly caught fish have a flesh pH of about 6.9 False: its about 7.2
The quality of shrimp remains generally good up to a pH of: A.7.9, B.7.7, C.7.6, or D.7.5? B. 7.7
At which pH level of that shrimp become progressively spoiled: A.7.7, B.7.8, C.7.9, or D.8.0? C. 7.9 or higher
what is the average yield of meat from a crab? 12% (20% for a king crab)
What color of grapes are dark and golden raisins made from, and how do the processes differ? Both are from green grapes: Dark raisins are sun-dried and golden raisins are hot-air dried
Deoxynivalenol is a toxin produced in foods which causes foodborne illnesses associated w/cereals, wheat, and cornbread. Give the genus and species of the organism that produces this toxin. Fusarium graminaerian
name the primary iron-binding protein in milk? Lactoferrin
What is the lactoferrin inhibitor in milk? Citrate
what is the iron-binding protein in egg albumen? conalbumin or ovotransferrin
what is the commercial source of lysozyme? dried egg white
what bond does lysozyme hydrolyze? the beta 1-4 glycosydic bonds between N acetymuramic acid (NAMA) and N acetyl glucoseamine (NAGA) in gram positive bacteria peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall
Unsaturated fatty acids differ from partially hydrogenated fatty acids in the overall shape of the molecule; what is the main difference? saturated fats are linear, form of unsaturated fats usually exist in the cis form
what is the measure of the strength of the bonding forces between fatty acid radicals within the crystals of a fat termed? melting point
why do the crystals in lard readily transform to the coarse beta form? the homogenicity of the crystals causes them to associate in large crystals and transform
In whipped cream, the foam stiffens; what stabilizes it? clumping of fat globules on the surface of the gas bubbles
in cakes, sugar is a tenderizing agent that counterbalances the effects of what 2 ingredients? eggs and flour
what are the 2 methods meat may be cooked in fat? panfrying and deep-frying
what is stem and blackening in raw potatoes caused by? phenolic compounds
In what year was the Pure Food and Drug Act passed? 1906
2 important amendments to the Pure Food and Drug act were passed in 1912 and 1930; name them Sherley and McNary-Mapes Amendments
Under what Act was the FDA established? Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
what state did Rep. James Delaney, author of the famous Delaney Clauses, come from? New York
What 5 general provisions were established in the 1958 Food Additives Amendment? 1)Additives were defined; 2)Burden of proof for approval shifted to industry;3)Delaney Clause outlawed carcinogens;4)GRAS list was established;5)GMP's were established
what president signed into existence the USDA and this country's Land Grant College System? Abraham Lincoln in 1862
What does PDP stand for in food packaging? Principle Display Panel
What is Favism? a metabolic disorder arising from the consumption of fava beans. Sufferers develop a type of anemia due to a lack of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
what are 3 modes of food packaging failure? pinholes, cracks, vacuum failure
How thick is 16-point paperboard? 0.016 inches
what is the machine used in paper making called? Fourdrinier machine
What is Cream of Wheat made of? farina
what are the 2 terms used to describe paper orientation? machine direction, cross direction
How are corrugated boards classified? A through E based on the # of flutes/foot
what is the water activity for minimal problems in a package? 0.2-0.3
which package-making process begins w/plastic sheets rather than pellets? thermoforming
Which has better barrier properties, amorphous or crystalline polymers? crystalline polymers
What are the flavor/antimicrobial compounds associated w/the following spices: Cloves, Cinnamon, Oregano, Thyme, Vanilla Beans, Garlic, and Onion? cloves=Eugenol;cinnamon=cinnamic aldehyde;oregano=carvacrol;Thyme= thymol;Vanilla Beans= Vanillin ;Garlic=allicin;onion=allicin
what is the chemical nature of oleoropin? phenolic glycoside
which part of the chicken has more calories: dark or white meat? dark meat
Gelatin is produced from what protein? collagen
what is the most common syrup added to soft drinks? High Fructose Corn Syrup
name the major red pigment in muscle tissue oxymyoglobin
which is the major ion used in muscle contraction? Ca++
what are the 2 major contractile proteins in muscles? actin and myosin
what compound is formed during glycolysis in the absence of oxygen? lactic acid
what is the 10-Carbon saturated fatty acid? Caproic acid
what growth factor cannot be used in cows in England? bovine somatotropin
what is the microbiological technique used to measure the amount of microbial colonies on a surface? RODAC plating
what is another name for the large intestine? colon
what is the coarse particle obtained from wheat milling? farina (middling)
How is temp related to the sweetness of a food? as temp increases, sweetness decreases
How long does a US patent last? 20 years
what is another name for levulose? fructose
what compound is left when Mg is removed from chlorophyll? pheophytin
Intermediate moisture foods chiefly rely on WHAT food ingredients for the desired texture and lowering of water activity? sugar (humectants)
flour bleaching targets what type of food pigment? carotenoids
What does UPC stand for, and how many digits does it have? Universal Product Code, 12 digits
What agency manages the UPC system? Uniform Code Council
What does PTO stand for? Patent & Trademark Office
in 1986, the president of this corporation was issued a $100,000 fine and sentenced to 1 day in prison for mis-labeling adulterated apple juice for infants. Beech Nut
What does FPLA stand for? Fair Packaging and Labeling Act
According to the FD&C Act and the FPLA, what 4 items of information are required on a food label? name and address of manufacturer, amount of food in package, common name of the food, and the ingredients of the food
what 5 statements regarding sodium content in a food are allowed by the FDA on a food label? Sodium Free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced sodium, and unsalted
what is the federally mandated minimum soluble solids content of jams, jellies, and preserves? 65%
anchovies all come from what family of fish? Engravlidae
what is meant by the term "feedy fish"? fish caught w/a stomach full of feed. These fish are highly susceptible to decomposition and should not be processed w/viscera intact
the PMO was developed by the FDA to provide a model of uniformity and adequacy for a certain product; what does PMO stand for? Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
Up to the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans, one genus and species of grape supplied all grape-based products to humans; name it. Vitus Vinifera
what variety of grape is the unfermented grape products industry in the US based on? Concord
the relative concentration of proteins in solution is typically determined by measuring the absorbance of what wavelength? 280nm
Shoyu, Miso, and tempeh are all example foods made from what raw material? soybean
what is the angle of the covalent bond in water? 105 degrees (104.52 degrees)
In what city was the 2001 IFT annual Meeting and Food Expo held? New Orleans
rank the following foodstuffs in order of lowest to highest cost per lb, according to typical US commodity pricing: vegetables, milk, meat, and grain grain, vegetables, milk, meat
which of the following denotes the correct way to type the name of a bacteria genus and species: A.genus name and species name capitalized, B.genus name capitalized and species lower-case, C.genus and species both lower-case, or D.none of the above? B. genus name capitalized, species name lower-case
Hops, used in the brewing of beer comes from which part of the Humulus lupulus plant? flower or blossom
in a protein, what do the terms N-terminal and C-terminal refer to? N-terminal is the end of the peptide chain w/an un-bonded amino group, C-terminal is the end w/and un-bonded carboxyl group
Who is the current president of the IFT? Roger Clemens;John Ruff (President-Elect)
What dish is derived from the stomach lining of ruminant animals? tripe
What term describes the concentration of an aroma in a food divided by its threshold? aroma value or odor activity value
what compounds that are produced in the manufacture of hydrogenated oils have been implicated in causing increased serum cholesterol levels, and thus heart disease? trans-fatty acids
what enzyme can disrupt the cell membranes of gram positive bacteria by cleaving the peptidoglycan? lysozyme
approximately what fraction of foodborne illnesses occur from food prepared and consumed in the home: A.1/4, B.1/3, C.1/2, or D.3/4? C. 1/2
FSIS and CFSAN recommend cooking hamburger to what internal temp? 160 degrees F or 71 degrees C
Which amino acid lies at the 105th position on kappa casein? phenylalanine
What unit of viscosity is equal to 1 gram per centimeter-second? poise
what enzyme in cheese will reduce diacetyl into acetoin? diacetyl reductase
what is the maximum pH at which sorbic acid is effective as a preservative in foods:A.3.5, B.4.5, C.5.5, or D.6.5? D.6.5
Botulism was given its Latin-derived name because it was originally associated w/what food? sausage
what do the acronyms BSE and CJD stand for, what is the causitive agents for these diseases, and what animals do these 2 diseases afflict? Both are prions;BSE=Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy(cattle);CJD= Creuztfeld-Jakob Disease(humans)
In 1878, Kuhne proposed the term "enzymes" for proteins that he extracted from yeasts and the stomach; what is the meaning of the Greek root "enzyme"? "in yeast" or "from yeast"
How would you convert kinematic viscosity to absolute viscosity? kinematic x density= absolute viscosity
what is the most water-soluble amino acid at room temp? proline
what 2 divalent cations are important promoters of gel formation in foods? Calcium and Magnesium
name the 4 parts of a typical compression-expansion refrigeration system compressor, condenser, evaporator coils, and expansion valve
Gluten is a very unusual protein, partly because over 50% of the protein is composed of just 3 amino acid residues; name 2 of these 3 amino acids. glutamate, glutamine, proline
in the assessment of GMO foods, herbicides and pesticides, the USDA, FDA, and EPA utilize a 6-criterion list, which is often referred to as FONSI; what does the acronym FONSI stand for? Finding Of No Significant Impact
which of the water-soluble vitamins has the largest and most complex molecular structure? B12
what was the 1st approved genetically modified food ingredient in the US? chymosin
what are the 2 general classifications of proteins, based on the tertiary or quaternary structure? globular/folded and fibrous/fibrillar/scleroproteins
myoglobin in living tissues contain what metal ion within its molecular core? Fe2+ or iron type II
how is the term Bt-corn derived? Bacillus thurengensis
what may occur in vegetable oil if trace heavy metals leach into the product from processing equipment? lipid oxidation may accelerate
PSE and DFD meat are common defects in meat products; what do these 2 acronyms stand for? Pale, Soft, Exudative and Dark, Firm, Dry
What is the chief difference between the grape must that is used in dessert wine fermentation vs. normal wine fermentation? dessert wine uses grapes w/a higher sugar content OR growth of mold on surface of grape
What is the Zeta potential of milk? 18 mV
What is spoilage caused by Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas marginalis that break down pectins, giving a soft mushy consistency, bad odor at times in foods like carrots, onions, garlic, etc? Bacterial soft rot
what is the name for dehydration and fragmentation of sugar molecule, AKA carmelization? pyrolysis
What is an enzymatic digestion of animal tissues, which is commonly used in the prep of culture media for the production of toxins, and in the fermentation industry for starter cultures? proteose peptone
What is a stabilized myofibrillar (myosin and fibrils)protein from fish muscle? surimi
What is a component of cementing material between plant cell walls that is converted to pectin in fruit as the fruit matures? protopectin
What are flavonoid phytochemical compounds that appear predominantly in green tea,that are also found in black tea, grapes, wine, and chocolate in small amounts? catechins
What are the grains cross-bred to create Triticale? combination of the scientific names of the two genera involved: Triticum (wheat) and Secale (rye)
what does the abbreviation related to shellfish toxin PSP stand for? PSP is Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
what does the abbreviation related to shellfish toxin DSP stand for? DSP is Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning
what does the abbreviation related to shellfish toxin NSP stand for? NSP is Neurotoxin Shellfish Poisoning
what does the abbreviation related to shellfish toxin ASP stand for? ASP is Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning
What is Planta Disease? allergic reaction to the emulsifier "ME18", which is added to margarine to keep fat from spattering during frying.
What does PVDC stand for? polyvinylidene chloride
What is the compound Caffeine Citrate used for in Sensory? used as a standard for bitterness
The Beer-Lambert Law is A=ECL; what does the "A" stand for in the Beer-Lambert Law? A is absorption
The Beer-Lambert Law is A=ECL;what does the "E" stand for in the Beer-Lambert Law? E is Molar Extinction Coefficient
The Beer-Lambert Law is A=ECL; what does the "C" stand for? C is concentration in moles/L
The Beer-Lambert Law is A=ECL; what does the "L" stand for? L the length of the light path in cm
Why does honey lose its sweetness w/increasing temp? fructose is found either as pyranose or furanose; increasing the temp shifts the equilibrium toward the furanose form (which is less sweet)
which of the following foods contain the highest content of water: A.fresh carrots, B.fresh tomatoes, C.whole milk, or D.fresh celery? D. fresh celery (contains 94.1% water).whole milk contains 87.2% water, Carrots contain 88.2% water, and fresh tomatoes contain 93.5% water
What are entomophagists? people who believe that it is more beneficial and nutritious to feast on insects
Why does honey lose its sweetness w/increasing temp? fructose is found either as pyranose or furanose; increasing the temp shifts the equilibrium toward the furanose form (which is less sweet)
which of the following foods contain the highest content of water: A.fresh carrots, B.fresh tomatoes, C.whole milk, or D.fresh celery? D. fresh celery (contains 94.1% water).whole milk contains 87.2% water, Carrots contain 88.2% water, and fresh tomatoes contain 93.5% water
What are entomophagists? people who believe that it is more beneficial and nutritious to feast on insects
The IMViC tests are a group of individual tests used in microbiology lab testing to identify an organism in the coliform group; what tests are involved in the IMViC? Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer, and Citrate
What is the Magna Carta? in 1215 England, this legal document included statements setting single standard measures for wine, ale, and corn...
What year was the Magna Carta enacted? in 1215 England, this legal document included statements setting single standard measures for wine, ale, and corn...
What does TSC agar stand for and what does it select for? Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine Agar is used to select for Clostridium perfringens
Which organisms does MacConkey Agar select for? MacConkey Agar selects for Gram Negative Bacteria
How is MacConkey agar differential? MacConkey agar contains lactose, which allows differentiation based on the organsim's ability to ferment lactose. If an organism can ferment lactose, the agar will turn pink
What genus/species of bacteria does the McBride Agar select for? Listeria Monocytogenes
what genus of bacteria does the Hektoen Enteric Agar select for? Hektoen Enteric selects for Salmonella and Shigella
what agents in Hektoen Enteric Agar differentiates Salmonella from Shigella? Ferric ammonium citrate and sodium thiosulfate; they combine to detect the desulfhydrase enzymes by salmonella (enzyme converts thiosulfate to H2S, which then reacts w/ferric iron to create a black precipitate
Name the microorganism associated w/Ergot poisoning. Claviceps purpurea
Name the microorganism associated w/ Zearalenones in corn. Fusarium graminarium
Name the microorganism associated w/ Patulin. Penicillium eseparsum
Name the microorganism associated w/ Aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus
what cheeses are associated w/ lactococcus? Cheddar or Mozzarella Cheese
what cheese is associated w/ propionibacterium shermanii? Swiss Cheese
what cheese is associated w/ Penicillium roqueforti? Blue Cheese
what cheeses are associated w/ Lactic streptococci? Edam or Gouda Cheese
is melting endothermic or exothermic? melting is endothermic
Is condensation endothermic or exothermic? condensation is exothermic
Is evaporation endothermic or exothermic? evaporation is endothermic
Is boiling endothermic or exothermic? boiling is endothermic
Is freezing endothermic or exothermic? freezing is exothermic
Is crystallization endothermic or exothermic? crystallization is exothermic
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding calcium? calcium and osteoporosis
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding folate? folate and neural tube defects
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding sodium? sodium and hypertension
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding dietary fat? dietary fat and cancer
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding dietary saturated fat and cholesterol? dietary saturated fat/cholesterol and coronary heart disease
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding soy intake? soy intake and cancer
According to the NLEA, what health claim can be made regarding fruits and vegetables? fruits and vegetables and cancer
What does LDPE stand for? LDPE= low density polyethylene
What does HDPE stand for? HDPE= high density polyethylene
What does PP stand for related to packaging? PP= polypropylene
What does PS stand for related to packaging? PS= polystyrene
What does PVC stand for? PVC= polyvinyl chloride
what is the difference between a climacteric fruit and a non-climacteric fruit? Climacteric fruits continue to ripen after harvest, non-climacteric fruits do not
what is the common metric unit for acceleration? acceleration= meters/seconds^2
what is the common metric unit for power? power= watt
what is the common metric unit for mass? mass= kg
what is the common metric unit for force? force= Newton
what agency regulates the production, labeling, and sale of wine coolers? wine coolers= FDA
what agency regulates the production, labeling, and sale of Emu? Emu= FDA
what agency regulates the production, labeling, and sale of Turkey? Turkey= USDA
what agency regulates the production, labeling, and sale of Lite Beer? Lite Beer= Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB)
Describe the flow behavior of a pseudoplastic material. Pseudoplastic= shear thinning
Describe the flow behavior of a dilatent material. Dilantent= shear thickening
Describe the flow behavior of a Bingham plastic material. Bingham Plastic= yield stress
Describe the flow behavior of a Thixotropic material. Thixotropic= thickens w/time
What is vitamin B1 also called? B1= thiamin
What is vitamin B2 also called? B2= riboflavin
What is vitamin B3 also called? B3= niacin
What is vitamin B6 also called? B6= pyridoxine
What is vitamin B12 also called? B12= cobalamin
What is vitamin B5 also called? B5= pantothenic acid
state the non-caloric sweetener(s) found in Fresca. Fresca= aspartame
state the non-caloric sweetener(s) found in Bottled Pepsi. Bottled Diet Pepsi= aspartame
state the non-caloric sweetener(s) found in diet coke from a soda fountain. Diet Coke from a soda fountain= aspartame and saccharin
state the full name that corresponds with recycling #1 for recyclable polymers 1.PETE=polyethylene teraphtalate
state the full names that correspond w/the recycling #2 for recyclable polymers 2.HDPE= high density polyethylene
state the full name that corresponds w/the recycling #3 for recyclable polymers 3.PVC=polyvinyl chloride
state the full name that corresponds w/the recycling #4 for recyclable polymers 4.LDPE= low density polyethylene
state the full name that corresponds w/the recycling #5 for recyclable polymers 5.PP=polypropylene
state the full name that corresponds w/the recycling #6 for recyclable polymers 6.PS=polystyrene
state the full name that corresponds w/the recycling #7 for recyclable polymers 7.other (lexan polycarbonate returnable milk bottles)
What is Furfural? off-flavor compound associated w/ascorbic acid browning
Where do lean fish store their fat? lean fish store fat in their liver (cod is example)
Where do fatty fish store their fat? fatty fish store fat in their tissue (mackerel is an example)
What is "The Park Principle"? Supreme Court Case (US vs. John Park) in 1975 that established the precedent for criminal liability of food company executives w/o the need of establishing intent
What are the thymus and pancreas glands of animals called within the meat industry? "Sweet Breads"
What animal is associated with the TSE disease Chronic Wasting Disease? Chronic Wasting Disease= deer
What animal is associated with the TSE disease Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy? Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy= cats
What animal is associated with the TSE disease Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease? Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease= Human
What animal is associated with the TSE disease Scrapie? Scrapie= goat
What is polyphenol oxidase? the enzyme that causes browning of many fruits and vegetables
what disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis thought to contribute to? Crohn's Disease
What does MAP stand for? Modified Atmosphere Packaging
What is Passive MAP? Passive MAP= atmosphere is modified at manufacture
what is Active MAP? Active MAP= gas needs to reach a steady state over time
What does COD stand for regarding measuring organic compounds in water? Chemical Oxygen Demand
What does BOD stand for regarding water quality? Biochemical Oxygen Demand
What does TOC stand for regarding water quality? Total Organic Carbon
What is the primary flavor compound of clove? Eugenol
What is the chance probability for the triangle test? Triangle Test= 1/3
What is the chance probability for the duo-trio test? Duo-Trio Test=1/2
What is the chance probability for the paired comparison test? Paired Comparison Test= 1/2
What is pheophytin? the olive green pigment found in broccoli that has been either over-cooked or cooked in acid
What microorganism does Oxford agar select for? Oxford= Listeria
What microorganism does Baird-Parker agar select for? Baird-Parker= Staphylococcus aureus
What microorganism does Bismuth-Sulfite agar select for? Bismuth-Sulfite= Salmonella
What type of whey is produced during the manufacture of Cottage cheese? Cottage= acid whey
What type of whey is produced during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese? Cheddar= sweet whey
What type of whey is produced during the manufacture of Ricotta cheese? Ricotta= acid whey
What type of whey is produced during the manufacture of Swiss cheese? Swiss= sweet whey
What is the country of origin of Feta cheese? Feta= Greece
What is the country of origin of Monterey Jack cheese? Monterey Jack= USA
What is the country of origin of Primost cheese? Primost= Norway
What is the country of origin of Gouda cheese? Gouda= Netherlands (Holland)
what does the acronym associated w/food analysis techniques "SEM" stand for? SEM= scanning electron microscopy
what does the acronym associated w/food analysis techniques "SDS-PAGE" stand for? SDS-PAGE= sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
what does the acronym associated w/food analysis techniques "NMR" stand for? NMR= nuclear magnetic resonance
what does the acronym associated w/food analysis techniques "FTIR" stand for? FTIR= Fourier Transform Infared Spectroscopy
What is the Schreiber melt test? commonly used melt test for cheese where sample discs of known dimensions are heated in an oven and the final diameter of the melted disc is measured
What does the microscopic technique "CLSM" stand for? CLSM= Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
What does the microscopic technique "SEM" stand for? SEM= Scanning Electron Microscopy
What does the microscopic technique "TEM" stand for? TEM= Transmission Electron Microscopy
What is a Barrow? castrated young male slaughter hog
What is a Gilt? female slaughter hog that hasn't produced piglets
What is the name of the amendment to the Pure Food and Drug act that was passed in 1912? Sherley Amendment
What is the name of the amendment to the Pure Food and Drug act that was passed in 1930? McNary-Mapes Amendment
What enzyme is lacking in people suffering from the metabolic disorder Favism, which causes a type of anemia? lack of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Cloves? cloves= Eugenol
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Cinnamon? cinnamon= cinnamic aldehyde
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Oregano? oregano= carvacrol
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Thyme? Thyme= thymol
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Vanilla Beans? Vanilla Beans= Vanillin
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Garlic? Garlic= allicin
What is the flavor/antimicrobial compound associated with Onion? onion= allicin
what does RODAC stand for? Replicate Organism Detection and Counting
Which of the following gels can be set chemically: A.Agar, B.Low-methoxy pectin, or C. Locus bean gum? B. Low-methoxy pectin
Which of the following acts as a buffer in milk: A.citrates, B.Lactose, or C.NaCl? A. citrates
What is the fermentative organism used in tempeh? Rhizopus oliosporus
Which of the following gums is not from a plant source: A.Guar, B.Locus bean gum, C.Carageenen, or D.Xanthan? D. Xanthan
What is the symbol for shear modulus? G
Protein absorbs light between 180-260 nm. Why? Peptide bonds
In spectrophotometric analysis, the absorbance is proportional to the concentration of the sample. What governs this phenomenon? Beer's Law (accepted Beer-Lambert Law)
What does "c" stand for in E=mc^2? speed of light
what is the legume that is classified by the sedimentation coefficients of its protein fractions 2s, 7s, 11s, and 14s? Soybean
name 2 spore-forming pathogenic bacteria found in foods Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum
What vegetable oils are approved for use in butter? none
What is the common name for n-hexadecanoic acid? Palmetic acid
What is the function of EDTA and SAP in foods? chelating agent, sequestrant
Casein coagulates at pH 4.6; what is this point called? isoelectric point
What is the reaction to make triglycerides? Fatty acid reacting with a glycerol with the release of water
the transformation of glucofuranose to glucopyranose is defined as what? mutarotation
What is the primary goal of pasteurization? to kill pathogens
name 2 grains that contains Beta-glucans Oats and Barley
When is it necessary to include the ingredients of a product on the label? when there are 2 or more ingredients and the product does not follow/have a standard of identity
What are the 2 cultures used in yogurt production? Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
If the barometric pressure is at 100% and the relative humidity is 20%, what is the humidity at 4? 20%
in the purification of cottonseed oil, what is the name of the toxin removed? Gossypol
What region are the following grains from: Amaranth, Kasha, Quinoa, and Spelt? Amaranth:Mexico, Kasha:Central Europe, Quinoa:Middle East, Spelt:South America
Name 3 examples of seafood intoxications. Scromboid poisoning, puffer fish toxin, ciguetera toxin, shellfish toxin
where is the WHO headquartered? Geneva
Where is the FAO headquartered? Rome
What do the acronyms HDPE, PP, LDPE, and PET stand for? HDPE=High-density polyethylene, PP= polypropionate, LDPE= low-density polyethylene, PET= polyethylene terapthalate
Rank the following sugars in order of increasing solubility: sucrose, fructose, and lactose Lactose, Sucrose, Fructose
In reverse phase gas chromotography, is the stationary phase polar or non-polar, and do polar or non-polar compounds elute first? Stationary phase is non-polar, Polar compounds elute first
What does it mean when pectin is classified as 150-grade? the pectin will gel 150lbs of sugar w/ 1lb of pectin
If water is not utilized, what are the USDA standards for egg pasteurization? 3.5 minutes at 60 degree C
What percentage of a vitamin/mineral must be present in a food in order for it to be called an excellent source/high in/rich in? 20%
What is the main ingredient in Mock Apple Pie? Ritz Crackers
What is the major toxin-producing microorganism associated with herb infused oils held at or above room temp for extended periods of time? Clostridium botulinum
How does adding a bit of salt change the taste of tonic water (with quinine)? decreases bitterness
Name the author of the book "On Food and Cooking" Harold McGee
Name the author of the book "What Einstein Told His Cook". Robert Wolke
In different situations, the term "ounces" can refer to different types of measurements; what are the 2 general categories ounces may measure. Weight and Volume
Marinades are usually made of 3 components; acid, oil, and herbs. What is the purpose of adding acid? the acid helps to partially denature the meat's proteins, opening up "tunnels" in the meat structure where flavor can seep in
In the making of chocolate, following roasting, the cocao beans are loaded into a machine called a winnower; what does this machine do? It removes the outer hulls and separates the "nibs" by size
what color are maraschino cherries after picking? Whitish-green
How many potatoes are grown in Idaho annually? 15 billion
How many days does it take to make 1 jelly bean? 10 days
What is a well-known gum used by microbiologists in bacteria cultivation and by food technologists in icing production? agar-agar
name the polyol found in triglycerides glycerol
name the natural emulsifier found in egg yolk. lecithin
What is the predominant organic acid found in grapes? tartaric acid
What is the general mechanism of enzyme action? decrease of activation energy of transition state
what is a toxic alkaloid found in the green part of potatoes? solanine
how many kilojoules are in 1 kilocalorie? 4.2 kilojoules
what vitamin deficiency causes Pellagra? niacin (vitamin B3/nicotinic acid)
which vitamin is essential for calcium absorption? Vitamin D
which minerals interfere with eachother's absorption in the gastrointestinal tract? calcium and phosphorus
A ribbon blender is preferred over a propeller-type agitator when mixing which types of ingredients? low speed= cake dough mixing; high speed= dissolving solid ingredients into a liquid component.
What process is used in the food industry to concentrate foods by water removal? evaporation
How can we decrease the boiling temp of a well-defined liquid mixture without changing its composition, in order to prevent degradation of heat-sensitive ingredients? use vacuum evaporator; under vacuum, boiling temps will decrease
what is the difference between evaporating and drying? evaporation is used to concentrate solids to a certain degree while drying is used to achieve a level close to total dryness with only 2-3% of water
Which dehydration process is used to obtain dry foods with minimal changes in their shape and ease of re-hydration? Vacuum Freeze-drying
what is usually meant by "flavor factors" in sensory quality? both sensations perceived by tongue and aromas perceived by the nose
what is the most common instrument used for sugar concentration measurement in solution? refractometer
What instrument is used for specific volatile aroma compounds quantitation? gas chromatograph
At which humidity level can bacteria better withstand- High or low? Low
What are 2 major contributions of chemicals released as smoke from burning wood during smoking? Flavor enhancement and Preservation
What are cyclones used for in milk spray-drying systems? to sediment small particles of powder still present in the air before its release.
what is the range of visible light in nanometers? 400-800 nm
How are fortified wines made? addition of extra alcohol to regular wine
What are the highest ethanol concentrations yeast can withstand during fermentation? 12-15% ethanol by volume
what do we call high-protein food from yeast and other microorganisms? single cell protein or SCP
When vitamin D is added to milk to make fortified milk, is it before or after pasteurization? vitamin D is generally added prior to pasteurization because it is heat-stable
Why is vitamin C usually not used for fortifying milk? it is easily destroyed by pasteurization and normal storage; it is also against current standard of identity for milk
What is responsible for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? proteins known as prions
What is the major ripening bacterium for Limburger cheese production? Brevibacterium linens
Aborigines in tropical countries wrapped meat in papaya leaves before cooking; what effect did they achieve by this? meat tenderizing action of proteolytic enzyme papain from papaya
What is the approximate temperature of the scalding procedure in poultry processing? 60 degrees C for 45 seconds or 52 degrees C for 2 minutes
Why do we do a de-sugaring step before drying of egg whites? to degrade traces of glucose and avoid Maillard browning or discoloration during drying
How do we prevent egg yolk gelation during freezing? by addition of 10% sugar or salt, or 5% glycerin
What do we call the process of converting vegetable oil to solid shortening? hydrogenation
What are the ingredients of mayonnaise, according to the standard of identity? at least 65% of vegetable oil, 2.5% acetic or citric acid, and egg yolk
What is Solid Fat Index? measurement of solidity of fats
define saponification value of fat number of mg of potassium hydroxide required to saponify (convert to soap) 1g of fat
What does the saponification value tell us? average molecular weight of fatty acids in the fat
what gas contributes to rising in yeast-raised baked goods? Carbon Dioxide
What is the common name for rigidity of plant cells as a result of being filled with an aqueous solution? turgor
what is the major color pigment in green leaves chlorophyll
what term is used to quantitatively describe taste/tartness of fruits? sugar-to-acid ratio; also called Brix-to-acid ratio
Why are juices deaerated? to minimize further destruction of Vitamin C and other oxidative change due to oxygen
What do we mean by "dry" wine? low sugar content
What is the processing difference between green tea and black tea? in green tea, leaves are steam-treated before drying to inactivate enzymes and avoid color change from green to black; In black tea, manufacturing enzymes are not inactivated, but fermentation occurs which changes color from green to black prior to drying
Why is sodium content put on a food label? excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to hypertension
what is the main function of food additives know as emulsifiers? to stabilize water-in-oil or oil-in-water systems
name the simplest amino acid glycine
what vitamin deficiency causes Beriberi? Thiamin (vitamin B1)
Name 3 types of food deterioration physical, chemical, biological
What organism causes Typhoid Fever? Salmonella typhii
How is the cell wall structure of a Gram+ cell responsible for the cell's Gram-stain reaction? G+ bacteria have a very thick cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan. These are dehydrated by the alcohol, causing the pores to close, thus preventing the Crystal Violet-Iodine complex from leaving the cell
What does the acronym IMViC stand for? The Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer, Citrate tests (these are used to identify coliform organisms)
Why is the biochemical test IMViC used? to divide Enterobacteriaceae into 2 major groups; the E. coli group and the Enterobacter-Klebsiella group
What does the acronym HACCP stand for? Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate
What does the acronym NADP stand for? Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
How does ATP become ADP? By transferring its terminal phosphate group to an acceptor molecule.
What is the non-amino part of a conjugated protein called? Prosthetic group
What is a conjugated protein? a protein with chemical components, in addition to amino acids (examples: lipoproteins and metalloproteins)
The unit of measure for enzymes are IU's or International Units; what is the definition of an IU? An international unit of enzyme activity is the amount of enzyme causing transformation of 1.0 micromol of substrate per minute at 25 degrees C.
What is the standard temperature and pressure (STP)? 0 degrees C at 1 atmosphere of pressure
what are stereoisomers? Compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different molecular arrangements
What is the definition of a non-essential amino acid? an amino acid that can be made by the body, ant are therefore not required by the diet
What is pK? the negative log of equilibrium constant
What is the definition of a saturated fatty acid? A fatty acid with no double bonds on the alkyl chain.
What is a probiotic? Bacteria that promote intestinal health and desirable intestinal microflora
What are lactic acid bacteria? A group of Gram+, non-spore forming, catalase negative, aerotolerant anaerobes, which carry out the fermentation of sugars
A brandy is 90 proof, so what is its percent of alcohol? 45% alcohol
What is the traditional source of rennet? the fourth stomach (abomasum) of calves
what is the name of the 4th stomach of cows? Abomasum
Define "Cheddaring" Method used to drain off whey and develop texture and acidity; it is accomplished by slicing drained curds into large blocks which are stacked and turned every 15 minutes until a titratable acidity of 0.5-0.6 is reached
What is the difference between Homofermentation and Heterofermentation? Homofermentation is when bacteria produce mostly lactic acid; Heterofermentation is when bacteria produce lactic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid, Carbon Dioxide, and other end products.
What end product(s) are produced in homofermentation? Homofermentation is when bacteria produce mostly lactic acid
What end product(s) are produced in heterofermentation? Heterofermentation is when bacteria produce lactic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid, Carbon Dioxide, and other end products.
What are hyphae? filaments of molds
What is a mycelium? a single mass of hyphae (plural: mycelia)
What are sclerotia? Dense, tightly packed masses of molds; they are survival structures (singular:sclerotium)
What are zygospores? sexual spores of molds, formed by the union of the tips of 2 hyphae.
What are ascospores? Sexual spores of molds, formed by the union of 2 cells within the mycelia; spores are held within an ascus (sac-like structure)
Pasteurization time and temperature is based on the destruction of which microorganism? Coxiella burnetti
Define "incubation period". The interval of time between infection by a microorganism and the onset of the 1st signs/symptoms of the disease.
Trichinosis is caused by Trichinella spiralis; what type of organism is this? a nematode
Trichinosis is most commonly associated with which food product? Pork
What does the acronym CFU stand for? Colony Forming Units
In statistics, what is a Type I Error? Rejecting a true hypothesis.
In statistics, what is a Type II Error? Accepting a false hypothesis.
In statistics, what is the Mode of a set of numbers? The value which occurs most frequently in a set of numbers.
In statistics, what is the Arithmetic Mean? It is what is commonly known as the average; it is the sum of all values divided by the number of values.
In statistics, what is the Median? The middle of a distribution; half of the values are above, and half of the values will be below.
In the 1940's, legislation was passed requiring that all grain products crossing state lines be enriched with which vitamins and minerals? Iron, Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), and Niacin (B3)
Presently, all grain products crossing state lines are required to be enriched with which vitamins and minerals? Iron, Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), and Folate.
How many kilocalories does 1g of carbohydrates provide? 4 kcal/g
How many kilocalories does 1g of protein provide? 4 kcal/g
How many kilocalories does 1g of fat provide? 9 kcal/g
How many kilocalories does 1g of alcohol provide? 7 kcal/g
The seeds of the Arachis hypogea, a legume, are roasted and ground into a protein-rich, viscous, spreadable paste; what is this paste commonly called? Peanut Butter
Which are the 2 essential fatty acids? Linoleic acid (Omega 6) and Linolenic Acid (Omega 3).
A kilocalorie-free food has how many kilocalories per serving? <5 kcal/serving
Saccharin is how many times sweeter than sugar? 300-400 times sweeter.
Sucralose is how many times sweeter than sugar? 400-800 times sweeter.
What is the name of the Vitamin D deficiency disease? Rickets.
What is the name of the thiamin deficiency disease? Beriberi.
What is the name of the niacin deficiency disease? Pellagra.
What is the name of the vitamin C deficiency disease? Scurvy.
When were small food processing plants (10-499 employees) required by USDA to implement HACCP? January 1999.
When were very small food processing plants (<10 employees) required by USDA to implement HACCP? January 2000.
When were large food processing plants (500 or more employees) required by USDA to implement HACCP? January 1998.
Who published the book "The Jungle" in 1906? Upton Sinclair
What is the Talmadge-Aiken Agreement? Talmadge-Aiken (TA) plants are federally inspected plants that are staffed by state employees because its cheaper to pay the state to employ inspectors.
What are 4 responsibilities of meat inspectors? Identify meat as: Healthy (no disease), Sound (clean, sanitary), Wholesome (not adulterated), and Properly Labeled (it is what it says it is).
What is the 4D concept in meat inspection (what does it remove from the meat industry)? Dead, Dying, Diseased, and Disabled animals are not allowed to enter commerce.
What are "sweetbreads" in the meat industry? thymus and pancreas glands of animals; they are a light meat that is firmer in texture as brains.
Why is it important to not get meat juice or raw meats on other foods? because raw meat and meat juice has bacteria that can be easily spread to other foods, causing foodborne illness.
What temperature should you cook poultry to? 165 degrees F.
What is hydrogenation? Addition of Hydrogen to the double-bonds of unsaturated oils. This changes liquid oils into semisolids and makes the fat or oil less susceptible to oxidation and rancidity. It causes fat to be more saturated.
Name 2 "Value Added" meat products. Pre-cooked vacuum packaged roast beef and marinated pork loin.
Sodium nitrite is used in making some processed meats because it: A.inhibits growth of botulinum toxin, B.is a curing agent that contributes to the flavor and texture of bacon, ham, and sausage products, C.fixes the meat color, or D.all of the above. D. all of the above.
Which statement is False about food irradiation: A.destroys harmful bacteria that cause food spoilage/human disease, B.foods are better preserved during storage, C. makes food radioactive, or D.involves exposing food to 1 of 3 types of ionizing energy. C. makes food radioactive
What has the Federal Government set as the maximum fat content of a hot dog: A.10%, B.25%, C.30%, or D.5%? C. 30%
For the average healthy adult, how much meat should be included in the daily diet: A. two 2-3 oz servings/day, B.five 4-6 oz servings/day, C.two 6-8 oz servings/day, or D.none? A. two 2-3 oz servings/day.
For safety, best flavor, cook pork to an internal temperature of: A.110 degrees F, B.130 degrees F, C.145 degrees F, or D.212 degrees F C. 145 degrees F
What is the meaning of "cutability" of a carcass? Cutability refers to the yield of lean meat in a carcass.
Which statement is false about meat tenderization: A.electrical stimulation improves tenderness of some meats, B.most meat tenderizers are from Papaya/Pineapple enzymes, C. does not affect keeping quality of meat, or D. can improve quality grade of meat? D. the use of meat tenderizers can improve the quality grade of meat.
What factors determine the quality grade of beef carcass: A.maturity of the carcass, B.marbling, C.color, firmness, and texture of the lean, or D.all of the above? D. all of the above.
What is an antioxidant? Substance used to retard rancidity of food due to exposure of oxygen.
What are the USDA meat grades for young pork? US No.1, US No.2, and US No.3.
What USDA grades of beef are generally found in the grocery store: A.Prime and Standard, B.Choice and Select, C.Cutter and Canner, or D.Select and Standard? B. Choice and Select
What does the term "water added" on a ham label mean? "water added" means that the cured ham returns to within 10% above the original weight of the ham during the curing process.
Which statement is false about cholesterol: A.Ch is a sterol found in all animal tissue, B.is a saturated animal fat that clogs arteries, C. is used by the body to make bile salts to aid in fat digestion, or D.is used by the body to make hormones? B. cholesterol is a saturated animal fat that clogs arteries.
What are the primary factors for determining the value and general acceptability of a beef carcass: A.cutability and quality, B.Tenderness and Juiciness, C.Dressing % and Yield, or D.Dressing % and Quality? A. Cutability and Quality.
What temps are needed for proper freezing and storage of meat: A.32 degrees F, B.0 degrees C or lower, C.0 degrees F or lower, or D.5-20 degrees F? C. 0 degrees F or lower.
What is the meaning of the term "nutrient dense" food? Nutrient density compares the amounts of essential nutrients to the amount of calories that a food contains; the greater the nutrient contribution of a food relative to the calorie content, the more nutrient dense it is.
The recommended refrigerator (36-40 degrees F) storage time for a maximum quality for beef porterhouse steaks is: A.1 day, B.5-10 days, C.2 weeks, or D.3-4 days? D. 3-4 days.
What is a "withdrawal period" regarding the use of drugs and hormones? the length of time before slaughter that the use of a hormone or drug must be discontinued.
Define the "hurdle concept" as it pertains to foods. preservation technique that involves using multibarrier methods in order to prevent microbial spoilage of foods: ex. combination of salt, water activity, pH, and temperature on the inhibition of bacterial growth
The elastic characteristic of the gluten is mostly attributed to which protein compound? Glutenin
Identify one function of Vitamin D: A.prevents scurvy, B.acts as an antioxidant, C.necessary for glucose metabolism, or A.aids in the absorption of calcium D. aids in the absorption of calcium
Why can vanillin be added to chocolate and it does not have to be labeled on the front panel that it is artificially flavored? One can add artificial flavorings to foods that do not "resemble, reinforce, or enhance the named flavor" and not label the front panel as being artificially flavored
In the development of toxicity data for seeking approval of a new food additive, explain the difference between an LD50 and NOAEL and what are the typical units for these? LD50 is the dose that kills 50% of test animals;NOAEL is the highest dose that cause No Observed Adverse Effects Level; amount is mg or micrograms per kg body weight
What bacterium causes "sweet curdling" type of spoilage of pasteurized milk without acid production: Bacillus cereus
What law gave FDA power to make the food industry keep records on traceability of foods? Biosecurity Act of 2002
The majority of stored energy in the body is in the form of A.glucose, B.ATP, C.amino acids, or D.triglycerides? D. triglycerides
The band They Might Be Giants sang a song called "John Lee Supertaster"; what compound could John Lee readily detect? bitterness of either phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or propylthiouracil (PROP)
name all of the chemicals used in Gram Staining Crystal Violet, Iodine solution, Ethanol, Safranin
Which of the following statements about aspartame is/are true: A.is stable at high temps, B.is a carbohydrate, C.people with PKU must avoid its consumption, D.it contains about 4 kcals per gram C and D are true
Name the polyol that is found in triglycerides. Glycerol
which of the following amino acids are essential for someone with PKU: A.tyrosine, B.isoleucine, C.phenylalanine, D.A and C, or E.all of the above? E.all of the above. A becomes essential in someone with PKU because they are not effective at metabolizing phenylalanine and limit their intake. The other 2 are essential for everyone.
How many kcals are provided in 1 gram of protein, of fat, and of alcohol? Protein=4kcal/g; Fat=9kcal/g; Alcohol=7kcal/g
What is Oswald Ripening? Oswald Ripening explains the growth of ice crystals during storage of ice cream; can also occur in emulsion systems with molecules diffusing from small droplets to large ones through the continuous phase
Explain how Raoult's Law is applied in food processing. Lowering of water activity when adding solutes to water; boiling point elevation or freezing point depression
What is the application of Stoke's Law in food processing? Separation rate of oil in water emulsion
What is Bovine Somatotropin used for? known as BST for short, it is a bovine growth hormone used to increase milk production in cows
Who is the current Commissioner of Foods for the FDA? Margaret Hamburg
In pasteurization of foods, what is an LTLT process and why is it used instead of other pasteurization methods? Low Temperature Long Time; pasteurization to inactivate pathogens without denaturing the protein; used for shell eggs and raw oysters
Name the protein-rich paste that is made from the seeds of the Arachis hypogea. Peanut Butter
Give 3 examples where enzymes are measured as an indication of quality or as a processing efficiency check. Lypoxytenase=Blanchiing; Peroxidase=blanching; Alkaline Phosphatase=milk pasteurization; alpha-amylase=starch quality; rennet=curd production efficiency
Which 2 enzymes are required for the determination of the degree of gelatinization? Pullulanase and Beta-amylase
What toxic substance is found in Gari, and what is the name of the tuber that this fermented product comes from? Cyanogens, Cassava
A pink color in sauekraut indicates the presence of what? Yeast
Which enzymes are used in the AOAC method for fiber determination? Alpha-amylase, protease, and glucoamylase
Name an official method of food analysis for fat determination. Soxhlet, Mojonnier
Name an official method of food analysis for protein determination. Kjeldahl, Dumas
Name an official method of food analysis for moisture determination. Oven methods, Karl Fischer
Name an official method of food analysis for ash determination. dry ashing
Which title and part of the Code of Federal Regulations is Good Manufacturing Practices found? Title 21, Part 110
Which 4 countries comprise the "Old World" region of wine production? FIGS= France, Italy, Germany, Spain
What is the single most important cause of food recalls in the USA? Undeclared allergens on the label
What percentage of salt is ideal for making sauerkraut? 2.25-3%
What milk product did the USDA propose as a substitute for meat in school lunches in 1996? yogurt
What determines the color of a chicken egg? Chickens earlobes
List the 8 beef quality grades according to the USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner
What nation produces 2/3rds of the world's Vanilla? Madagascar
What is the name of FD&C Blue No.1? Brilliant Blue
What is the name of FD&C Blue No.2? Indigotine
What is the name of FD&C Green No.3? Fast Green
What is the name of FD&C Red No.40? Allura Red
What is the name of FD&C Red No.3? Erythrosine
What is the name of FD&C Yellow No.5? Tartrazine
What is the name of FD&C Yellow No.6? Sunset Yellow
What is the artificial color number for Brilliant Blue? FD&C Blue No.1
What is the artificial color number for Indigotine? FD&C Blue No.2
What is the artificial color number for Fast Green? FD&C Green No.3
What is the artificial color number for Allura Red? FD&C Red No.40
What is the artificial color number for Erythrosine? FD&C Red No.3
What is the artificial color number for Tartrazine? FD&C Yellow No.5
What is the artificial color number for Sunset Yellow? FD&C Yellow No.6
List the 7 types of plastics used in food packaging according to their recycling number (in order) 1=polyethylene terephthalate (PET); 2=High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE);3=Polyvinyl chloride (PVC); 4.Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE);5.Polypropylene (PP);6.Polystyrene (PS);7.other
What are the 3 major end products of food fermentations? Lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol
What are the 7 HACCP Principles? 1.conduct hazard analysis, 2.identify critical control points, 3.establish critical limits, 4.establish monitoring procedures, 5.establish corrective actions, 6.establish verification procedures, 7.establish record keeping
Which of the following vegetables contain the most kcals per 100g raw serving:A.cabbage, B.Onions, C.Tomatoes, or D.Beets? C. Tomatoes
What are the 3 types of antigens targeted in immunoassays for detection of microorganisms? Microbial cells, toxins, and other proteins
What are the 3 characteristics that make the 16S RNA genes ideal as a phylogenetic molecule? Highly conserved, universally present in all bacteria, easy to obtain, and has multiple copies
Which organism caused the largest # of foodborne outbreaks and what type of general category of foodborne disease does it cause? Norovirus; invasive infection
What is the difference between intoxication and toxicoinfection? intoxication is caused by a toxic compound found in the food; toxicoinfection is a type of infection in which the symptoms are caused by a toxin produced by a microorganism
Explain why a virus cannot cause a toxicoinfection or an intoxication. Viruses are obligate parasites;they do not produce toxins and can only cause invasive infections
List the "Big 8" allergens in the US Shellfish, Fish, Milk, Eggs, Soy, Wheat, Peanuts, and Tree Nuts
What are the 6 syrup behaviors of a sugar syrup in the Cold-Water test? Thread, Soft Ball, Firm Ball, Hard Ball, Soft Crack, and Hard Crack
Name the 10 states in the FoodNet active Surveillance Program. Californa, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee
What is the common name of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine or methyl theobromine? Caffeine
Which of the following pathogens is known for its ability to grow at 4 degrees Celsius:A.Clostridium botulinum, B.Escherichia coli, C.Camplobacter jejuni, or D.Listeria monocytogenes? D.Listeria monocytogenes
What animal's milk is commonly used to produce Roquefort cheese? Sheep's Milk
Which of the following cheeses has the highest % of calcium: A.Parmesan, B.Swiss, C.Cheddar, or D.Limburger? A. Parmesan
How does avidin prevent microbial growth in eggs? Avidin binds biotin
Which of the following fish contains the highest % of iron: A.halibut, B.Rainbow Trout, C.Pink Salmon, or D.Catfish? B. Rainbow Trout
What color are anthocyanins at Basic and Acidic pH? Basic=Blue; Acidic=red
What is "overrun" and what product does it relate to? Overrun measures the amount of air in ice cream. The volume is increased during the freezing process, but the mass remains the same
Who is the Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Food Science? Daryl B. Lund
Name 3 gums which are exudates from trees. Gum Arabic, Gum Karaya, Gum Tragacanth
Who is the President of IFT? Roger Clemens (2012)
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the 6 parts of the large intestine? Cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, decending colon, Sigmoid colon, rectum
What is the compound that causes the hot sensation in black pepper? piperine
What is the compound that causes the hot sensation in red pepper? capsaicin
What is the difference between a weiner and a frank? a weiner can be a mixture of meats, but a frank must only be what is on the label (example: beef franks)
What is the simplest Carbohydrate? Glyceraldehyde
What gas is used to pasteurize spices? Ethylene dioxide
Why is calcium added to tofu during production? Creates a firmer texture due to electrostatic interactions.Used to solidify the soy milk once the whey is extracted.A coagulating agent is mixed in, such as calcium sulfate,which alters the pH and curds the soymilk similar to the making cottage cheese.
How does Alka-Seltzer relieve heartburn? Sodium Citrate (a weak base) neutralizes stomach acid.
What is the template for PCR and Real Time PCR? PCR=DNA; Real Time PCR= RNA
which protein is the most hydrophilic in casein? Kappa-Casein
Which protein is the most hydrophobic in casein? Beta-Casein
which protein denatures at a lower temp: Beta-Lactoglobulin or Alpha-lactalbumin? alpha-lactalbumin is more thermally labile, but protein denaturation depends also on pH.
What is the process of converting unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids? Hydrogenation
What is NSLAB and what are 3 examples? Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria; Lactobacillus curvatus, L. plantarum, Lactobacillus casei
What % of egg white is water? 90%
What is the visible intercellular fat in meat called? marbling
To what % is water allowed to be added to ground beef? 0%
What is the most common industrial source of lysozyme? Egg Whites
What mineral is involved in the possible 6th taste? Calcium
Who was the 1st president of the Institute of Food Technologists? Samuel Prescott
What is Sous Vide? food is minimally processed, vacuum packaged, shipped under refrigerated conditions, and cooked in water baths at below boiling temps for long time (131-140 F, 55-60C for 4-72 hours)
What is the lifespan of a taste bud? 7 days
What food was originally considered a poison fruit, but then later "the love apple"? the tomato
What is the process in beer manufacturing where the starches in grains are broken down into fermentable sugars? Mashing
What are 2 bitter compounds in coffee? Caffeine and polyphenols (such as tannins)
To which taste are humans most sensitive? Bitter
What is "psychophysics"? The discipline within psychology that investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and their subjective correlates, or percepts.
Who many reducing ends are present in amylopectin? 1
What is the most common stabilizer used in the production of chocolate milk? Carrageenen
In reference to Stokes Law, How can you create an emulsion in salad dressing? Shaking the dressing causes the droplets in the discontinuous phase to become smaller, which creates more friction between the droplets and the continuous phase; this results in slower separation of the 2 phases
What is candling? Holding an egg up to the light to examine the quality of an egg (done by the USDA)
Where did the kiwifruit originate? China
Where were the IFT annual meetings held from 2004-2011? 2004=Las Vegas; 2005=Chicago; 2006=Orlando; 2007=Chicago; 2008=New Orleans; 2009=Anaheim; 2010=Chicago; 2011=New Orleans
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2004? Las Vegas
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2005? Chicago
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2006? Orlando
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2007? Chicago
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2008? New Orleans
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2009? Anaheim
Where was the IFT annual meeting held in 2010? Chicago
Where was the IFT annula meeting held in 2011? New Orleans
What are the steps necessary in sauerkraut production? Shred cabbage; salt cabbage at 2.25-3%; pack the cabbage to remove air pockets; create an anaerobic environment; hold at 21 degrees C for 3-4 weeks.
What bacteria are required for sauerkraut production? Leuconostoc Mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis
Which of the following is a non-nutritive sweetener: A.Sugar Alcohol, B.Sucralose, C.Saccharine, or D.Aspartame? A. Sugar Alcohol
Which sugar substitute is a peptide? Aspartame
What 8 items must be labeled on a meat package? up to eight specific requirements for product label: product name, inspection legend and establishment number, handling statement, net weight statement, ingredients statement,address line, nutrition facts, and safe handling instructions
What is the caloric value of aspartame? 8 kcal/g
What is the % of fat in cream that is used to make butter? 36-44% fat
What does NLEA stand for? Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990.
In what decade was the Bureau of Chemistry within the Department of Agriculture changed to the FDA? in the 1930's
Which organization inspects meat processing? FSIS=Food Safety and Inspection Services
What base is used in the saponification process? potassium Hydroxide or Sodium Hydroxide
What is the cause of the dark flavor of Stout? Roasted malt or barley in hops
What causes swelling in cans? Enterobacteria
How do you calculate the Total System Head? Total discharge head-total suction head
What type of plant cell is most common in the edible part of plants? Parenchyma cells
Where is the flank cut of an animal? Abdomen
What is the fungal genus responsible for the production of soy sauce? Aspergillus (oryzae is species)
Which fungus is responsible for the production of aflatoxin? Aspergillus flavis
Why is a rotating retort used for the thermal processing of canned soups? The rotation causing mixing of the soup in the can and promotes even heating during the thermal processing
Which of the following modes of heat transfer are used in the retort: A.conduction, B.Convection, or C.Radiation? A. Conduction and B. Convection
China and India are the largest exporters of what commodity? Tea
Which tea is blanched and fermented prior to drying to maintain the activity of the polyphenols and prevents oxidation of the polyphenols? Green Tea
In canned vegetable processing, peroxides are used to control what phenomena in processing? Blanching
What is performed prior to grinding in the production of coffee? Roasting
For what purpose are mono and di-glycerides used in food production? Emulsifiers
Cherries, pears, and apples belong to what botanical family? Rose
The pioneering food scientist that was the 1st to develop canned food had an IFT award named after hi- What is the award? Nicolas Appert Award
What enzyme causes browning in apples or potatoes? polyphenoloxidase
What is required for Maillard reaction? Reducing sugar, asparagines (lysine), and high heat
Enzymatic browning requires which agents? Polyphenols, polyphenoloxidase, and oxygen
Which compound found in chocolate is toxic to dogs? Theobromine
What is the most heat-resistant bacteria in milk? Coxiella burnetti
Classify the following dietary fibers as soluble or insoluble: hemicellulose, cellulose powder, gum, oatbran Soluble: oatbran
Which meat has the shortest time before the beginning of rigor mortis: A.Pork, B.Lamb, or C.Beef? A. Pork
What are the thick and thin filaments in meat? Thick=actin; thin=myosin
What is the term for the distance between z-lines in a muscle? sarcomere
Why is fish meat softer than other meats? Fish meat contain less connective tissue and the connective tissue melts easily
What are the chemical classes in the carotenoid compounds? xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons and contain no oxygen)
What is the definition of conjugated bonds in fatty acids? Conjugated double bonds are separated by a methylene
What is the bitter compound found in the skin of oranges? naringine
In an emulsion, which law gives a qualitative indication of the physical factors that influence the stability of an emulsion? Stoke's Law
What is the most abundant protein in meat? Collagen
What organizations govern the regulation regarding seafood? Mostly FDA/USDA regulates farmed catfish/US Dept of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin Fisheries Service manages the nation’s fishery resources in U.S. territorial waters/EPA sets standards for levels of contaminants in recreational fish
What organization governs microwave regulations? FCC
What animal cause the most human deaths? Rats
How are potato chips protected from physical damage? Bags are nitrogen-flushed
What is a gaseous plant hormone? Ethylene
What causes lipid oxidation? metal ions, UV light, temp., oxygen, presence of conjugated double bonds, and free radicals
What 2 products does milk separate into during the production of cheese? Whey and Curd
What are the 6 sizes of eggs? Jumbo, Extra Large, Large, Medium, Small, and Pee Wee
which of the following is the isoelectric point of casein:A.5.2, B.4.6, C.4.8, or D.5.6? B. 4.6
Why is ascorbic acid sometimes added to flour? it acts as an oxidizing agent in a dough system, causing cross-linking between gluten protein thus imparting strength to the dough
name 3 applications of immobilized enzymes in industry. HFCS/hydrolysis of lactose using beta-galactosidase/production of protein hydrosylates/ELISA/Active Modified Packaging
What is the main application of transglutaminase? cross-linking of proteins to strengthen gelling properties; mostly used in rice or cornbread applications
What is the main intramolecular force responsible for the formation of secondary structure of proteins: A.disulfide bonding, B.Electrostatic interactions, C.Hydrogen bonding, or D.Van der Waal's interactions? C. Hydrogen bonding
The elastic characteristic of the gluten is mostly attributed to which protein component? Glutenin
If a protein is present in a solution at a pH greater than its isoelectric point, what charge would it be carrying? Negative Charge
Give 3 examples where enzymes are measured as an indication of quality or as a processing efficiency check. Lipoxygenase=blanching; peroxidase=blanching; phosphatase=milk pasteurization; alpha-amylase=starch quality; rennet=curd production efficiency
In an enzymatic assay intended to measure enzyme activity, should the substrate concentration be much greater than the km or much smaller than the km? the substrate concentration must be much greater than the km so the that the reaction is 1st order with respect to enzyme and zero order with respect to substrate.
Name 3 methods for determination of protein content in a purified protein solution. Lowry/BCA/UV at 280 or 220/Bradford/Dumas/Kjeldahl/Biuret
What is the difference between SDS-PAGE and Urea-PAGE? SDS-PAGE separates proteins solely based on size, whereas Urea-PAGE separates proteins based on their charge to size ratio.
What type of chromatography is generally used to separate positively charged molecules: A.Anion exchange chromatography, B.Affinity Chromatography, C.Cation Exchange Chromatography, or D.Reverse-Phased Chromatography? A. Anion Exchange Chromatography
Absorbtivity is a proportionality constant dependent on:A.molecular properties of species, B.Wavelength, C.Chemical Environment, or D.All of the above? D. All of the Above
What is the molarity of 40% NaOH solution? 10M
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true regarding Food/organic acids: A.they are weak acids, B.they have good buffering capacity, C.can buffer at multiple pHs, or D.All of the above? D. All of the Above
What are the main forces stabilizing the gluten structure of dough systems? Hydrogen bonding and disulfide linkages
In reverse-phase chromatography, state the type of mobile phase and stationary phase used. Polar mobile phase and non-polar stationary phase
Name 2 proteins that have antinutritional effects upon consumption. Lectins, trypsin inhibitor, amylase inhibitor
Which of the following is the most thermally labile vitamin: A.vitamin K, B.Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), C.Vitamin C, or D.Vitamin A? C.Vitamin C
Name 2 enzymes that are mostly used for meat tenderization. papain and Bromelain
Which of the following can be an official method of analysis or an AOAC method for certain food matrices: A.Dumas, B.Soxhlet, C.Karl Fischer Titration, D.Muffle Furnace Dry Ashing, or E.All of the above? E. All of the Above
What phytochemical class is mostly abundant in soybeans and have significant physiological contributions? isoflavones
What is the principle of accelerated solvent extraction? Extraction by exposing a solid or semi-solid sample to a non-polar solvent in static or dynamic mode under elevated temperature and pressure conditions.
How many PKa(s) does ascorbic acid have? 2: one at 4.10 and another at 11.79
What are the essential ingredients for a fruit preserve? sugar, fruit, pectin, and acid
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