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A&P 2 - E4 - P3

A&P 2 - Exam 4 - Part 3 - Fluid & Electrolyte Balance

QuestionAnswer
Fluid and electrolyte balance implies _________. homeostasis
Electrolytes have chemical bonds that allow dissociation into ______. ions
Ions carry an _______ charge. electrical
Ions are of critical importance in ________ balance. fluid
Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are _________. interdependent
The fluid content of the human body ranges from __% to __% of its total weight. 40%, 60%
The fluid content of the human body varies according to _____, _____, and ______. age, gender, weight
What are the 2 major body fluid compartments? extracellular fluid(ECF), intracellular fluid(ICF)
_________ fluid constitutes the internal environment of the body. extracellular (ECF)
Extracellular fluid consists mainly of _______ and _______ fluid. plasma, interstitial
Other extracellular fluid include ______, ______, and ______. lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, specialized joint fluids
A function of extracellular fluid is to provide a relatively constant environment for ______ and to transport substances to and from the ______. cells, cells
_______ fluid is the fluid inside cells. intracellular (ICF)
Intracellular fluid functions to facilitate intracellular ________ that maintain life. chemical reactions
By volume, intracellular fluid is the ______ body fluid compartment. largest
What 2 extracellular fluids are almost identical in chemical makeup? plasma and interstitial fluid
Intracellular fluids show striking ________ from extracellular fluids. differences
Blood contains a slighty larger total of ______ than interstitial fluid. ions
______ contains a slighty larger total of ions than _______. blood, interstitial fluid
A functionally important difference between blood and interstitial fluid is the number of __________. protein anions
Blood has an appreciable amount of _________, whereas interstitial fluid has hardly any. protein anions
_______ has an appreciable amount of protein anions, whereas _______ has hardly any. blood, interstitial fluid
Since the capillary membrane is practically impermeable to _______, almost all ______ remain in the blood. proteins, protein anions
ICF and ECF are more _______ than _______. dissimilar, similar
The chemical structure of plasma, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid helps control ______ and ______ movement between them. water, electrolyte
Concentration or weight of an electrolylte can be expressed as the number of _______ of a solution. milligrams per 100 ml (mg%)
The conversion of mg% to ________ provides information on actual physiological activity. milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
The ________ unit measures the number of ionic charges or electrocovalent bonds in a solution. milliequivalent
The milliequivalent unit measures the number of ______ or ______ in a solution. ionic charges, electrocovalent bonds
The milliequivalent unit accurately measures the physiological ______ of an electrolyte solution. combining power
mEq/L = ______ * __ * ______ over atomic weight mg/100mL, 10, valence
Water enters the body via the ______ tract. digestive
Water is also added to the total fluid volume from each ______ as it catabolizes food, and the resulting water enters the ______. cell, bloodstream
Water can leave the body as ______ through the kidney. urine
Water can leave the body as water in expired air through the ______. lungs
Water can leave the body as ______ through the skin. sweat
Water can leave the body as ______ from the intestine. feces
The cardinal principle of fluid balance is: fluid balance can be maintained only if ______ equals _______. intake, output
Mechanisms are available to adjust output and intake to maintain fluid balance, e.g. the ______ mechanism, and the ______ mechanism. aldosterone, renin-angiotensin
Most rapid fluid balance devices are mechanisms for controlling water movement between ______ of the body. fluid compartments
Rapid fluid balance devices will maintain normal blood volume at the expense of ______ fluid volume. interstitial
Under normal conditions, homeostasis of total volume of water is maintained or restored primarily by adjusting ______ volume and secondarily by ______ intake. urine, fluid
When dehydration begins to develop, salivary secretion _______, producing the sensation of _______. decreases, thirst
Individual increased fluid intake to offset increased output tends to restore ______ balance. fluid
What two factors determine urine volume? glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption rate
Glomerular filtration rate except under abnormal conditions, remains fairly ______. constant
The rate of tubular reabsorption of water fluctuates ________. considerably
The rate of ______ of water fluctuates considerably. tubular reabsorption
The rate of tubular reabsorption normally adjusts ______ to fluid intake. urine volume
The rate of tubular reabsorption is influenced by amount of ______ and ______. antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone
Rate of ______ and volume of ______ secreted may alter fluid output under certain abnormal conditions. respiration, sweat
Vomiting, diarrhea, or intestinal drainage can produce _______ and ________ imbalances. fluid, electrolyte
The ______ is the control mechanism for water exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid that consists of four pressures. law of capillaries
The four pressures of the law of capillaries include blood ______ and ______ pressures on one side of the capillary membrane and interstitial fluid ______ and ______ pressures on the other side. hydrostatic, colloid osmotic, hydrostatic, colloid osmotic
In the law of capillaries, two two of the pressures form a ______ in one direction and the other two in the opposite direction. vector
Blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP) forces fluid out of ______ into ______. capillaries, interstitial fluid
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) draws fluid from ____ into ______. interstitial fluid, capillaries
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) forces fluid out of _____ into _____. interstitial fluid, capillaries
Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (IFCOP)draws fluid from _______ to _______. capillaries, interstitial fluid
The rate and direction of fluid exchange between capillaries and interstitial fluid are determined by the ______ and ______ pressures of the two fluids. hydrostatic, colloid osmotic
No net transfer of water occurs as long as (_____ + _______) = (IFHP + BCOP). BHP, IFCOP
A net transfer of fluid occurs when (BHP + IFCOP) does not equal (____ + ____). IFHP, BCOP
Fluid shifts out of ______ into ______ whenever (BHP + IFCOP) is greater than (IFHP + BCOP). blood, interstitial fluid
Fluid shifts out of ______ into ______ whenever (BHP + IFCOP) is less than (IFHP + BCOP). interstitial fluid, blood
______ is the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intracellular tissue spaces of the body. edema
Edema is the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the ______ tissue spaces of the body. intracellular
Fluid imbalance may be due to the retention of _____ in the extracellular fluid. electrolytes
Fluid imbalance may be due to an increase in ______. capillary blood pressure
Fluid imbalance may be due to a ______ in the concentration of plasma proteins normally retained in the blood. decrease
Fluid imbalance may be due to a decrease in the concentration of ______ normally retained in the blood. plasma proteins
Fluid imbalance may be due to the retention of electrolytes in the ______ fluid. extracellular
Fluid imbalance may be due to an ______ in capillary blood pressure. increase
The ______ plays a critical role in regulating intracellular fluid (ICF) composition. plasma membrane
The plasma membrane plays a critical role in regulating ______ composition. intracellular fluid (ICF)
Interstitial fluid (IF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) hydrostatic and colloid pressures regulate water transfer between ______ and ______. extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF)
______ and ______ hydrostatic and colloid pressures regulate water transfer between extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF). interstitial fluid (IF), intracellular fluid (ICF)
Colloid osmotic pressures are the chief regulators of water transfer across cell membranes, and these are directly related to the ______ maintained across cell membranes. electrolyte concentration gradient
______ pressures are the chief regulators of water transfer across cell membranes, and these are directly related to the electrolyte concentration gradient maintained across cell membranes. colloid osmotic
Normal sodium concentration in interstitial fluid (IF) and potassium concentration in intracellular fluid (ICF) depends on various factors, but especially on amount of ______ and ______ secreted. antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone
Normal ______ concentration in interstitial fluid (IF) and ______ concentration in intracellular fluid (ICF) depends on various factors, but especially on amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone secreted. sodium, potassium
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) electrolyte concentration and colloid osmotic pressure by regulating the amount of ______ reabsorbed into the ______ by the ______. water, blood, renal tubules
______ regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) electrolyte concentration and colloid osmotic pressure by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed into the blood by the renal tubules. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Aldosterone regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by regulating the amount of ______ reabsorbed into blood by renal tubules. sodium
______ regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by regulating the amount of sodium reabsorbed into blood by renal tubules. aldosterone
When conservation of body sodium is required, the kidneys excrete an essentially _______ urine. sodium-free
The kidneys are considered the chief regulator of ______ levels. sodium
Chloride is the most important extracellular ______ and is almost always linked to ______. anion, sodium
______ is the most important extracellular anion and is almost always linked to ______. chloride, sodium
Chloride ions are generally excreted in urine associated with _______. potassium
______ ions are generally excreted in urine associated with potassium. chloride
________ is often associated with cases of potassium loss. hypochloremia
Hypochloremia is often associated with cases of ______ loss. potassium
______ occurs where there is cell breakdown. hypokalemia
As cells disintegrate, ______ enters extracellular fluid (ECF) and is rapidly excreted because it is not reabsorbed efficiently by the kidney. potassium
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by dehydration? hypovolemia
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by fluid volume excess? hypervolemia
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by lower than normal serum sodium concentration? hyponatremia
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by the elevation of the normal serum sodium concentration? hypernatremia
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by lower than normal serum potassium levels? hypokalemia
What is a fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by higher than normal levels of potassium? hyperkalemia
Created by: K1N1V