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A&P 2 - E4 - P2

A&P 2 - Exam 4 - Part 2 - Urinary Physiology

QuestionAnswer
The chief functions of the kidney are to process _______ and form _______. blood, urine
The basic functional unit of the kidney is a _______. nephron
Nephrons within kidneys form urine through what 3 processes? filtration, reabsorption, secretion
_______ is the movement of water and solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of the Bowman's capsule. filtration
Filtration is the movement of water and solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of the ________. Bowman's capsule
________ is the movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the peritubular blood. reabsorption
Reabsorption is the movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the _________ blood. peritubular
_______ is the movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion. secretion
_______ is the first step in blood processing that occurs in the renal corpuscles. filtration
Filtration is the first step in blood processing that occurs in the _________. renal corpuscles
From blood in the glomerular capillaries, water and solutes filter into Bowman's capsule; this takes place through the __________ membrane. glomerular-capsular
Filtration occurs due to existence of a _________. pressure gradient
Glomerular capillary filtration occurs rapidly due to the increased number of _________. fenestrations
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure and filtration are _____ related to systemic blood pressure. directly
_________ pressure and filtration are directly related to systemic blood pressure. glomerular hydrostatic
________ is the second step in urine formation. reabsorption
________ occurs due to passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules. reabsorption
Reabsorption occurs due to _______ and ________ transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules. passive, active
A major portion of reabsorption occurs in ________ tubules. proximal
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, most water and solutes are recovered by the _______, leaving only a small volume of tubule fluid to move on to the _______. blood, loop of Henle
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, sodium is actively transported out of _______ fluid and into _______. tubule, blood
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, sodium is ______ transported out of tubule fluid and into blood. actively
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, glucose and amino acids are passively transported out of tubule fluid by means of the ________ mechanism. sodium cotransport
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, _______ and _______ are passively transported out of tubule fluid by means of the sodium cotransport mechanism. glucose, amino acids
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions passively move into blood due to an imbalance of ________. electrical charge
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, _______, ______, and _______ ions passively move into blood due to an imbalance of electrical charge. chloride, phosphate, bicarbonate
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, the movement of sodium and chloride into blood causes an _______ imbalance, moving _______ passively into blood. osmotic, water
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, Approximately one half of urea ________ moves out of tubule with the remaining urea moving on to the loop of Henle. passively
During reabsorption in the proximal tubule, approximately ________ of urea passively moves out of tubule with the remaining urea moving on to the loop of Henle. one half
The distal tubule reabsorbs _______ by active transport but in smaller amounts than in the proximal tubule. sodium
During reabsorption in the distal tubule and collecting ducts, _____ is secreted by the posterior ______. ADH, pituitary
ADH is secreted by the ________ pituitary and targets the cells of distal tubules and collecting ducts to make them more permeable to ______. posterior, water
With the reabsorption of water in the collecting duct, the urea concentration of the tubule fluid ________. increases
Increased urea concentration of the tubule fluid causes urea to diffuse out of the collecting duct into the ________ interstitial fluid. medullary
Urea participates in a _________ mechanism. countercurrent multiplier
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism of urea works with countercurrent mechanisms of the ________ and ________. loop of Henle, vasa recta
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism of urea and countercurrent mechanisms of the loop of Henle and vasa recta maintain a ______ osmotic pressure needed to form concentrated urine and avoid ______. high, dehydration
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism of urea and countercurrent mechanisms of the loop of Henle and vasa recta maintain a high ______ needed to form _______ and avoid dehydration. osmotic pressure, concentrated urine
Tubular secretion is the movement of substances out of the _______ and into ________ fluid. blood, tubular
_______ is the movement of substances out of the blood and into tubular fluid. tubular secretion
During tubular secretion, ________ limb of the loop of Henle secretes _______ via diffusion. descending, urea
During ________ , descending limb of the loop of Henle secretes urea via _________. tubular secretion, diffusion
During tubular secretion, distal and collecting tubules secrete _______, _______, and _______ ions. potassium, hydrogen, ammonium
During tubular secretion, what is a hormone that targets the cells of the distal and collecting tubule? aldosterone
During tubular secretion, aldosterone causes increased activity of ________. sodium potassium pumps
During tubular secretion, ________ causes increased activity of sodium potassium pumps. aldosterone
During tubular secretion, the secretion of _______ ions increases with increased blood _______ ion concentration. hydrogen, hydrogen
_____ influences water reabsorption. ADH
As water is reabsorbed, the total volume of urine is _______ by the amount of water removed by the tubules. reduced
ADH _______ water loss. reduces
Aldosterone is secreted by the __________. adrenal cortex
Aldosterone increases _______ tubule absorption of sodium, raising the sodium concentration of blood and thus promoting _______ of water. distal, reabsoption
_______ hormone is secreted by specialized _______ muscle fibers. atrial natriuretic (ANH), atrial
What does ANH stand for? atrial natriuretic hormone
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) promotes the loss of _______ via urine. sodium
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)opposes ________, causing the kidneys to reabsorb _______ water and thereby produce more _______. aldosterone, less, urine
________ is related to the total amount of solutes other than sodium excreted in the urine. urine volume
Urine volume is related to the total amount of solutes other than ______ excreted in the urine. sodium
In relation to urine volume, the more _______, the more urine. solutes
Urine composition is approximately what percent water? 95%
________ wastes in urine are a result of prtein metabolism. nitrogenous
What are 4 nitrogenous wastes in urine? ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine
_________ found in the urine consist of ions of sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate. electrolytes
The amounts and kinds of minerals found in urine vary with _______ and other factors. diet
During disease, what bacterial poisons leave the body in the urine? toxins
Pigments can be found in urine, especially ________. urochromes
High hormone levels may cause hormones to spill into the _______. filtrate
Urine may contain abnormal constituents such as _______, _______, ________, and ________. blood, glucose, albumin, calculi
The homeostasis of ______ and ______ in body fluids relies on proper functioning of the kidneys. water, electrolytes
_______ process blood to adjust its content to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. nephrons
The urinary and cardiovascular systems are __________. interdependent
The ________ and ________ systems must operate properly to ensure efficient kidney function. endocrine, nervous
What are renal and urinary obstructive disorders known as? hydronephrosis
What are 3 disorders that fall under the category of obstructive disorders? renal calculi, neurogenic bladder, tumors and other obstructions
Kidney stones are made of calcium and are known as what? renal calculi
What is the loss of normal nervous system control of the bladder? neurogenic bladder
What are some examples of renal and urinary tumors and other obstructions? kidney and bladder cancer, scarring kinks in ureter
What are 3 disorders that fall under the category of urinary tract infections? urethritis, cystitis, nephritis
What is a urinary tract infection which is often an STD infection such as chlamydia? urethritis
What is a urinary tract infection which is usually a bladder infection? cystitis
What is a urinary tract infection which is usually a kidney infection? nephritis
What are 3 glomerular disorders? nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis
What are 3 conditions associated with nephrotic syndrome? proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema
What is a condition in which albumin (usually) filters through a damaged glomerular-capsular membrane? proteinuria
What is a condition that is a drop in blood albumin? hypoalbuminemia
What is a condition that is caused by a lack of blood protein in which fluid leaves the blood and enters tissue? edema
What is an autoimmune kidney disease caused from strep infection? acute glomerulonephritis
What glomerular disorder is marked by progressive kidney damage? chronic glomerulonephritis
What type of kidney failure is caused by hemorrhage, burn or obstruction? acute renal failure
What type of kidney failure causes an increase in nitrogenous waste in blood? acute renal failure
What type of kidney failure causes a high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test result? acute renal failure
What type of kidney failure is a gradual loss of nephrons usually due to infection, tumor, or autoimmunity? chronic renal failure
What is the stage of chronic renal failure in which healthy nephrons compensate by enlarging and taking over functions of lost nephrons? stage 1
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) can be kept to a normal level even when ___% of nephrons are lost. 75%
What is the stage of chronic renal failure in which the kidenys can no longer compensate for lost nephrons causing BUN to spike? stage 2
What is the stage of chronic renal failure which consists of total renal failure? stage 3
Created by: K1N1V